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# CIRCUIT THEOREMS

الكلية كلية الهندسة     القسم  الهندسة الميكانيكية     المرحلة 1
أستاذ المادة فرح فاهم السرحان       05/07/2018 17:24:20
‎4.1 INTRODUCTION‎

‎ The growth in areas of application of electric circuits has led to an evolution from ‎simple to complex circuits. To handle the complexity, engineers over the years have ‎developed some theorems to simplify circuit analysis. Such theorems include Thevenin’s ‎and Norton’s theorems. In addition to circuit theorems, we discuss the concepts of ‎superposition, maximum power transfer, Millman’s theorem, in this chapter.

Practice problem: ‎

For the circuit in Figure (4.1), find vo when is = 15 and is = 30 A.‎

‎4.2 SUPERPOSITION

The idea of superposition rests on the linearity property.‎
The superposition principle states that the voltage across (or current through) an ‎element in a linear circuit is the

algebraic sum of the voltages across (or currents ‎through) that element due to each independent source acting alone.‎
However, to apply the superposition principle, we must keep two things in mind:‎

‎1. We consider one independent source at a time while all other independent sources are ‎turned off. This implies that we replace every voltage source by 0 V (or a short circuit), and ‎every current source by 0 A (or an open circuit). ‎

‎2. Dependent sources are left intact because they are controlled by circuit variables. With ‎these in mind, we apply the superposition principle in three steps:‎

Analyzing a circuit using superposition has one major disadvantage: it may very likely ‎involve more work. Keep in mind that superposition is based on linearity. ‎

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