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# ANALYSIS METHODS

الكلية كلية الهندسة     القسم  الهندسة الميكانيكية     المرحلة 1
أستاذ المادة فرح فاهم السرحان       05/07/2018 17:16:35
3.1 INTRODUCTION

Having understood the fundamental laws of circuit theory (Ohm’s law and Kirchhoff’s laws), we are now prepared to apply these laws to develop two powerful techniques for circuit analysis: nodal analysis, which is based on a systematic application of Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL), and mesh analysis, which is based on a systematic application of Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL). The two techniques are so important that this chapter should be regarded as the most important in the lectures.

3.2 NODAL ANALYSIS

Nodal analysis provides a general procedure for analyzing circuits using node voltages as the circuit variables. Choosing node voltages instead of element voltages as circuit variables is convenient and reduces the number of equations one must solve simultaneously. To simplify matters, we shall assume in this section that circuits do not contain voltage sources. Circuits that contain voltage sources will be analyzed in the next section.

We shall now explain and apply these three steps.

The first step in nodal analysis is selecting a node as the reference or datum node. The reference node is commonly called the ground since it is assumed to have zero potential. A reference node is indicated by any of the three symbols in Fig. 3.1. We shall always use the symbol in Fig. 3.1(b). Once we have selected a reference node, we assign voltage designations to nonreference nodes. Consider, for example, the circuit in Fig. 3.2(a).

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