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HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

الكلية كلية الهندسة     القسم  الهندسة البيئية     المرحلة 4
أستاذ المادة سعاد مهدي غليوة الفتلاوي       4/20/2011 11:02:47 AM

HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

 

 

Siting Considerations

 

 

A wide range of factors must be considered in siting hazardous waste managementfacilities. Some of these are determined by law: for example, RCRA prohibitsn land filling of flammable liquids. Socioeconomic factors are often the key to siting.

 

Joseph Koppel (Koppel 1985) has coined the acronym LULU - locally undesirable land use - for a facility that no one wants nearby but that is going to be put somewhere.

 

 

Certainly, hazardous waste facilities are LULUs. In selecting a site, all of the relevant “-ologies” must be considered: hydrology,

 

climatology, geology, and ecology, as well as current land use, environmental health, and transportation. EPA also requires risk analysis under regulations promulgated under RCRA .

 

 

Hydrology

 

 

 

Hazardous waste landfills should be located well above historically

 

high groundwater tables. Care should be taken to ensure that a location has no surface or subsurface connection, such as a crack in confining strata, between the site and a water course. hydrologic considerations limit direct discharge of wastes into groundwater

 

or surface water supplies.

 

 

Climatology

 

 

 Hazardous waste management facilities should be located outside

 

the paths of recurring severe storms. Hurricanes and tornadoes disrupt the integrity of landfills and incinerators, and cause immediate catastrophic effects on the surrounding environment and public health in the region of the facility.

 

In addition, areas of high air pollution potential should be avoided in site selection processes.

 

 

These areas include valleys where winds or inversions act to hold pollutants close to the surface of the earth, as well as areas on the windward side of mountain ranges, i.e., areas similar to the Los Angeles area where long-term inversions are prevalent.

 

 

 

Geology

 

 A disposal or processing facility should be located only on stable geologic formations. Impervious rock, which is not littered with cracks and fissures, is an ideal final liner for hazardous waste landfills.

 

 

Ecology

 

 

 The ecological balance must be considered as hazardous waste management facilities are located in a region. Ideal sites in this respect include areas of low fauna and flora density, and efforts should be made to avoid wilderness areas, wildlife refuges, and animal migration routes. Areas with unique plants and animals, especially endangered species and their habitat, should also be avoided.

 

 

 

 

Alternative Land Use. Areas with low ultimate land use should receive prime consideration. Areas with high recreational use potential should be avoided because of the increased possibility of direct human contact with the wastes.

 

 

Transportation

 

 

 Transportation routes to facilities are a major consideration in

 

siting hazardous waste management facilities. USDOT guidelines suggest the use of interstate and limited-access highways whenever possible. Other roads to the facilities should be accessible by all-weather highways to minjmize spills and accidents during periods of rain and snowfall. Ideally, the facility should be close to the generation of the waste in order to reduce the probability of spills and accidents as wastes are transported.

 

Socioeconomic Factors.

 

 

Factors that could make or break an effort to site a

 

hazardous waste management facility fall under this major heading. Such factors,which range from public acceptance to long-term care and monitoring of the facility,  Public control over the opening, operation, and closure of the facility.

 

 

2. Public acceptance and public education programs. Will local towns people permit it?

 

3. Land use changes and industrial development trends. Does the region wish to experience the industrial growth induced by such facilities?

 

 

4. User fee structures and recovery of project costs. Who will pay for the facility? Can user charges be used to induce industry to reuse, reduce, or recover the resources materials in the waste?

 

 

5. Long-term care and monitoring. How will post closure maintenance be guaranteed and who will pay? All are critical concerns in a hazardous waste management scheme.

 

 

The term mixed waste refers to mixtures of hazardous and radioactive wastes; for example, organic solvents used in liquid scintillation counting are an excellent example.

 

 

Siting a mixed waste facility is difficult because the laws and regulations governing handling of chemically hazardous waste overlap and sometimes conflict with those governing handling of radioactive waste. are:

 

 

Incinerators

 

 

Incineration is a controlled process that uses combustion to convert a waste to a less bulky, less toxic, or less noxious material. The principal products of incineration from a volume standpoint are carbon dioxide, water, and ash, but the products of primary

 

concern because of their environmental effects are compounds containing sulfur, nitrogen, and halogens. When the gaseous combustion products from an incineration process contain undesirable compounds, a secondary treatment such as afterburning,

 

 

scrubbing, or filtration is required to lower concentrations to acceptable levels before atmospheric release. The solid ash products from the incineration process are also a major concern and must reach adequate ultimate disposal.

 

 

1.    Burning wastes and fuels in a controlled manner has been carried on for many years and the basic process technology is available and reasonably well developed.This is not the case for some of the more exotic chemical degradation processes.

 

2. Incineration is broadly applicable to most organic wastes and can be scaled to handle large volumes of liquid waste.

 

 

3. Incineration is the best known method for disposal of “mixed waste” (see previous description).

 

 

4. Large expensive land areas are not required.

 

 

The disadvantages of incineration include:

 

 

1. The equipment tends to be more costly to operate than many other alternatives, and the process must meet the stringent regulatory requirements of air pollution control.

 

 

2. It is not always a means of ultimate disposal in that normally an ash remains that may or may not be toxic but that in any case must be disposed of properly and with minimal environmental contamination.

 

 

3. Unless controlled by applications of air pollution control technology, the gaseous and particulate products of combustion may be hazardous to health or damaging to ProPerty.


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