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Storage capacity of Reservoirs

الكلية كلية الهندسة     القسم  الهندسة البيئية     المرحلة 4
أستاذ المادة عدي عدنان جهاد الخيكاني       06/12/2013 17:27:53
Storage capacity of Reservoirs
Instructional
Water storage reservoirs may be created by constructing a dam across a river, along with suitable appurtenant structures. However, in that lesson not much was discussed about fixing the size of reservoir based on the demand for which it is being constructed. Further, reservoirs are also meant to absorb a part of flood water and the excess is discharged through a spillway. It is also essential to study the relation between flood discharge, reservoirs capacity and spillway size in order to propose an economic solution to the whole project. These and topics on reservoir sedimentation have been discussed in this lesson which shall give an idea as to how a reservoir should be built and optimally operated. Fundamentally, a reservoir serves to store water and the size of the reservoir is governed by the volume of the water that must be stored, which in turn is affected by the variability of the inflow available for the reservoir. Reservoirs are of two main categories:
(a) Impounding reservoirs into which a river flows naturally.
(b) Service or balancing reservoirs receiving supplies that is pumped or channeled into them artificially. In general, service or balancing reservoirs are required to balance supply with demand. Reservoirs of the second type are relatively small in volume because the storage required by them is to balance flows for a few hours or a few days at the most.
Impounding or storage reservoirs are intended to accumulate a part of the flood flow of the river for use during the non-flood months. In this lesson, our discussions would be centered on these types of reservoirs.
Types of reservoirs:
•Auxiliary or Compensatory Reservoir: A reservoir which supplements and absorbed the spill of a main reservoir.
• Balancing Reservoirs: A reservoir downstream of the main reservoir for holding water let down from the main reservoir in excess of that required for irrigation, power generation or other purposes.
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• Conservation Reservoir: A reservoir impounding water for useful purposes, such as irrigation, power generation, recreation, domestic, industrial and municipal supply etc.
• Detention Reservoir: A reservoir where in water is stored for a relatively brief period of time, past of it being retained until the stream can safely carry the ordinary flow plus the released water. Such reservoirs usually have outlets without control gates and are used for flood regulation. These reservoirs are also called as the Flood Control Reservoir or Retarding Reservoir.
• Distribution Reservoir: A reservoir connected with distribution system a water supply project, used primarily to care for fluctuations in demand which occur over short periods and as local storage in case of emergency such as a break in a main supply line failure of a pumping plant.
• Impounding or Storage Reservoir: A reservoir with gate-controlled outlets wherein surface water may be retained for a considerable period of time and released for use at a time when the normal flow of the stream is in sufficient to satisfy requirements.
• Multipurpose Reservoir: A reservoir constructed and equipped to provide storage and release of water for two or more purposes such as irrigation, flood control, power generation, navigation, pollution abatement, domestic and industrial water supply, fish culture, recreation, etc.

المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .