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Hydraulic Actuators

الكلية كلية الهندسة     القسم  الهندسة البيئية     المرحلة 3
أستاذ المادة عدي عدنان جهاد الخيكاني       05/10/2012 16:45:54
A hydraulic actuator receives pressure energy and converts it to mechanical force and motion. An actuator can be linear or rotary. A linear actuator gives force and motion outputs in a straight line. It is more commonly called a cylinder but is also referred to as a ram, reciprocating motor, or linear motor. A rotary actuator produces torque and rotating motion. It is more commonly called a hydraulic motor or motor.
Cylinders. A cylinder is a hydraulic actuator that is constructed of a piston or plunger that operates in a cylindrical housing by the action of liquid under pressure. A cylinder housing is a tube in which a plunger (piston)
operates. In a ram-type cylinder, a ram actuates a load directly. In a piston cylinder, a piston rod is connected to a piston to actuate a load. An end of a cylinder from which a rod or plunger protrudes is a rod end. The opposite end is a head end. The hydraulic connections are a head-end port and a rod-end port (fluid supply).
a. Single-Acting Cylinder. This cylinder only has a head-end port and is
operated hydraulically in one direction. When oil is pumped into a port, it pushes on a plunger, thus extending it. To return or retract a cylinder, oil must be released to a reservoir. A plunger returns either because of the weight of a load or from some mechanical force such as a spring. In mobile equipment, flow to and from a single-acting cylinder is controlled by a reversing directional valve of a single-acting type.
b. Double-Acting Cylinder. This cylinder must have ports at the head and rod ends. Pumping oil into the head end moves a piston to extend a
rod while any oil in the rod end is pushed out and returned to a reservoir. To retract a rod, flow is reversed. Oil from a pump goes into a rod end, and a head-end port is connected to allow return flow. The flow direction to and from a double-acting cylinder can be controlled by a double-acting
directional valve or by actuating a control of a reversible pump.
c. Differential Cylinder. In a differential cylinder, the areas where pressure is
applied on a piston are not equal. On a head end, a full piston area is available for applying pressure. At a rod end, only an annular area is available for applying pressure. A rod’s area is not a factor, and what space it does take up reduces the volume of oil it will hold. Two general rules about a differential cylinder are that:
• With an equal GPM delivery to either end, a cylinder will move faster when retracting because of a reduced volume capacity.


المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .