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# Pressure Distribution in Fluids

الكلية كلية الهندسة     القسم  الهندسة البيئية     المرحلة 3
أستاذ المادة عدي عدنان جهاد الخيكاني       05/10/2012 16:41:20
INTRODUCTION
Fluids are generally found in contact with surfaces. Water in the sea and in reservoirs are in contact with the ground and supporting walls. Atmospheric air is in contact with the ground. Fluids filling vessels are in contact with the walls of the vessels. Fluids in contact with surfaces exert a force on the surfaces. The force is mainly due to the specific weight of the fluid in the case of liquids. In the case of gases molecular activity is the main cause of force exerted on the surfaces of the containers. Gas column will also exert a force on the base, but this is usually small in magnitude. When the whole mass of a fluid held in a container is accelerated or decelerated without relative motion between layers inertia forces also exert a force on the container walls. This alters the force distribution at stationary or atatic conditions. Surfaces may also be immersed in fluids. A ship floating in sea is an example. In this case the force exerted by the fluid is called buoyant force. This is dealt with in a subsequent chapter. The force exerted by fluids vary with location. The variation of force under static or dynamic condition is discussed in this chapter. This chapter also deals with pressure exerted by fluids due to the weight and due to the acceleration/deceleration of the whole mass of the fluid without relative motion within the fluid. Liquids held in containers may or may not fill the container completely. When liquids partially fill a container a free surface will be formed. Gases and vapours always expand and fill the container completely.

PRESSURE
Pressure is a measure of force distribution over any surface associated with the force. Pressure is a surface phenomenon and it can be physically visualised or calculated only if the surface over which it acts is specified. Pressure may be defined as the force acting along the normal direction on unit area of the surface. However a more precise definition of pressure,
P is as below:

P = lim (?F/?A) = dF/dA
A-a

F is the resultant force acting normal to the surface area A. ‘a’ is the limiting area which will give results independent of the area. This explicitly means

المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .