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# APPLICATIONS OF BERNAULLI’S EQUATION

الكلية كلية الهندسة     القسم  الهندسة البيئية     المرحلة 3
أستاذ المادة عدي عدنان جهاد الخيكاني       05/10/2012 11:47:32
While the Bernoulli equation given in Eq. (4.18b) and the energy equation from Eq. 7.29 have a similarform and
several terms in common, they are not the same equation. This section explains the differences betweenthese
two equations. This information is important for conceptual understanding of these two very important
equations.
The Bernoulli equation and the energy equation are derived in different ways. The Bernoulli equation was
derived by applying Newton s second law to a particle and then integrating the resulting equation along a
streamline. The energy equation was derived by starting with the first law of thermodynamics and then using the
Reynolds transport theorem. Consequently, the Bernoulli equation involves only mechanical energy, whereas the
energy equation includes both mechanical and thermal energy.
The two equations have different methods of application. The Bernoulli equation is applied by selecting two
points on a streamline and then equating terms at these points:
In addition, these two points can be anywhere in the flow field for the special case of irrotational flow. The
energy equation is applied by selecting an inlet section and an outlet section in a pipe and then equating terms as
they apply to the pipe:
The two equations have different assumptions. The B ernoulli equation applies to steady, incompressible, and
inviscid flow. The energy equation applies to steady, viscous, incompressible flow in a pipe with additional
energy being added through a pump or extracted through a turbine.
Under special circumstances the energy equation canbe reduced to the Bernoulli equation. If the flow is
inviscid, there is no head loss; that is, h
L
= 0. If the “pipe” is regarded as a small stream tube enclosing a
streamline, then ? = 1. There is no pump or turbinealong a streamline, so hp
= ht= 0. In this case the energy
equation is identical to the Bernoulli equation. Note that the energy equation cannot be developed starting with
the Bernoulli equation.
In summary, the energy equation is notthe Bernoulli equatio

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