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NOS

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أستاذ المادة وسام سمير عبد علي بهيه       30/06/2018 13:23:01
Information Networks - IT
University of Babylon
1
Network Operating
Systems
NOSInformation Networks - IT
University of Babylon
2
• Every network today has some form of
software to manage its resources. This
software runs on a special, high-powered
computer and is called a network
operating system (or NOS, for short).
The NOS is one of the most important
components of the network.Information Networks - IT
University of Babylon
3
A networking operating system (NOS) is
the software that runs on a server and
enables the server to manage data, users,
groups, security, applications, and other
networking functions.Information Networks - IT
University of Babylon
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The most popular network operating
systems are
* Microsoft Windows Server 2003/ 2008,
* UNIX, Linux,
* Mac OS X, and
* Novell NetWare.Information Networks - IT
University of Babylon
5
Network Operating Systems are based on a
client/server architecture in which a
server enables multiple clients to share
resources.Information Networks - IT
University of Babylon
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Network Operating Systems (NOS) are
embedded in a router or hardware firewall
that operates the functions in the network
layer (layer 3) of the OSI model.
• Examples:
• Cisco IOS (formerly "Cisco Internetwork
Operating System").
• MikroTik RouterOS™ (is a router
operating system and software which
turns a regular Intel PC or MikroTik
RouterBOARD™ hardware into a
dedicated router.)Information Networks - IT
University of Babylon
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Client/Server
Client/server network operating systems allow the
network to centralize functions and applications
in one or more dedicated servers. The server is
the center of the system, allowing access to
resources and instituting security. The network
operating system provides the mechanism to
integrate all the components on a network to
allow multiple users to simultaneously share the
same resources regardless of physical location.Information Networks - IT
University of Babylon
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NOS Characteristics
The function of an operating system (OS) is
to control the computer hardware, program
execution environment, and user interface.
The OS performs these functions for a
single user or a number of users who
share the machine serially rather than
concurrently. An administrator may set up
accounts for more than one user, but
users cannot log on to the system at the
same time.Information Networks - IT
University of Babylon
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In contrast, network operating systems
(NOSs) distribute their functions over a
number of networked computers. A NOS
depends on the native OS in each
individual computer. It then adds functions
that allow access to shared resources by a
number of users concurrently.Information Networks - IT
University of Babylon
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• NOS computers take on specialized roles
to accomplish concurrent access to shared
resources. Client systems contain
specialized software that allows them to
request shared resources that are
controlled by server systems responding
to a client request. Figure below illustrates
the concept of how data that is stored in
servers is made available to the requests
of clients.Information Networks - IT
University of Babylon
11Information Networks - IT
University of Babylon
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Differences between PCs and a NOS
• PCs function as clients in a NOS environment.
By using the functions of the PC native operating
system, the user is able to access resources that
are local to the PC. These include applications,
files, and devices that are directly attached such
as printers. When a PC becomes a client in a
NOS environment, additional specialized
software enables the local user to access nonlocal or remote resources as if these resources
were a part of the local system. The NOS
enhances the reach of the client PC by making
remote services available as extensions of the
local native operating system.Information Networks - IT
University of Babylon
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Although a number of users may have accounts on
a PC, only a single account is active on the
system at any given time. In contrast, a NOS
supports multiple user accounts at the same
time and enables concurrent access to shared
resources by multiple clients. Servers must
support multiple users and act as repositories of
resources that are shared by many clients.
Servers require specialized software and
additional hardware. Figure below illustrates this
concept further. The server must contain several
user accounts and be capable of allowing more
than one user access to network resources at a
time.Information Networks - IT
University of Babylon
14Information Networks - IT
University of Babylon
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Multiuser, multitasking, and
multiprocessor systems
• In order to support multiple concurrent
users and to provide shared access to
network services, resources, and devices,
NOS servers must run operating systems
with characteristics that extend beyond
those of client PCs.Information Networks - IT
University of Babylon
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A NOS server is a multitasking system. Internally,
the OS must be capable of executing multiple
tasks or processes at the same time. Server
operating systems accomplish this with
scheduling software that is built into the
execution environment. The scheduling software
allocates internal processor time, memory, and
other elements of the system to different tasks in
a way that allows them to share the systems
resources. Each user on the multiuser system is
supported by a separate task or process
internally on the server. These internal tasks are
created dynamically as users connect to the
system and are deleted when users disconnect.Information Networks - IT
University of Babylon
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NOS Characteristics
1- Network Operating Systems (NOSs) distribute
their functions over a number of networked
computers.
2- It adds functions that allow access to shared
resources by a number of users concurrently.
3- Client systems contain specialized software that
allows them to request shared resources that
are controlled by server systems responding to a
client request.Information Networks - IT
University of Babylon
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4- The NOS enhances the reach of the
client PC by making remote services
available as extensions of the local
native operating system.
5- NOS supports multiple user accounts
at the same time and enables
concurrent access to shared resources
by multiple clients.Information Networks - IT
University of Babylon
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6- A NOS server is a multitasking system.
Internally, the OS must be capable of
executing multiple tasks or processes at
the same time.
7- Some systems are equipped with more
than one processor, called multiprocessing
systems. They are capable of executing
multiple tasks in parallel by assigning each
task to a different processor.Information Networks - IT
University of Babylon
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• 8- NOS servers are a computers with
additional memory to support multiple
tasks that are all active, or resident, in
memory at the same time.
• 9- Additional disk space is also
required on servers to hold shared files
and to function as an extension to the
internal memory on the system.Information Networks - IT
University of Babylon
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Another feature of systems capable of acting
as NOS servers is the processing power.
Ordinarily, computers have a single central
processing unit (CPU) that executes the
instructions which make up a given task or
process. In order to work efficiently and
deliver fast responses to client requests,
an OS that functions as a NOS server
requires a powerful CPU to execute its
tasks or programs.Information Networks - IT
University of Babylon
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Single processor systems with one CPU can
meet the needs of most NOS servers if
they have the necessary speed. To
achieve higher execution speeds, some
systems are equipped with more than one
processor. Such systems are called
multiprocessing systems. They are
capable of executing multiple tasks in
parallel by assigning each task to a
different processor.Information Networks - IT
University of Babylon
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Figure below illustrates a typical multitasking
server that is running multiple instances of
network services which are being
accessed by multiple client systems.
Servers of this nature are sometimes
referred to as enterprise servers because
of their capacity to handle large and
multiple services.Information Networks - IT
University of Babylon
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Enterprise servers are also capable of running
concurrent copies of a particular command. This
allows them to execute multiple instances of the
same service or program call threads. A thread
is a computer programming term that describes
a program which can execute independently of
other parts. Operating systems that support
multithreading enable programmers to design
programs whose threaded parts can execute
concurrently.

المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .