انت هنا الان : شبكة جامعة بابل > موقع الكلية > نظام التعليم الالكتروني > مشاهدة المحاضرة

PPP Concept

الكلية كلية تكنولوجيا المعلومات     القسم قسم شبكات المعلومات     المرحلة 4
أستاذ المادة وسام سمير عبد علي بهيه       29/01/2016 10:58:21
PPP Concept

Recall that HDLC is the default serial encapsulation method when you connect two Cisco routers. With an added protocol type field, the Cisco version of HDLC is proprietary. Thus, Cisco HDLC can only work with other Cisco devices. However, when you need to connect to a non-Cisco router, you should use PPP encapsulation.


PPP encapsulation has been carefully designed to retain compatibility with most commonly used supporting hardware. PPP encapsulates data frames for transmission over Layer 2 physical links. PPP establishes a direct connection using serial cables, phone lines, cellular telephones, specialized radio links, or fiber-optic links. There are many advantages to using PPP, including the fact that it is not proprietary. Moreover, it includes many features not available in HDLC:


The link quality management feature monitors the quality of the link. If too many errors are detected, PPP takes the link down.
PPP supports PAP and CHAP authentication.


HDLC protocol for encapsulating datagrams over point-to-point links.
Extensible Link Control Protocol (LCP) to establish, configure, and test the data link connection.
Network Control Protocols (NCPs) for establishing and configuring different Network layer protocols. PPP allows the simultaneous use of multiple Network layer protocols. Some of the more common NCPs are Internet Protocol Control Protocol, Appletalk Control Protocol, Novell IPX Control Protocol, Cisco Systems Control Protocol, SNA Control Protocol, and Compression Control Protocol.



Most of the work done by PPP is at the data link and Network layers by the LCP and NCPs. The LCP sets up the PPP connection and its parameters, the NCPs handle higher layer protocol configurations, and the LCP terminates the PPP connection.


Link Control Protocol Layer
The LCP provides automatic configuration of the
interfaces at each end, including:
• Handling varying limits on packet size
• Detecting common misconfiguration errors
• Terminating the link
• Determining when a link is functioning
properly or when it is failing
8
• PPP also uses the LCP to agree
automatically on encapsulation formats
(authentication, compression, error
detection) as soon as the link is established.
9
Network Control Protocol Layer
• Point-to-point links tend to worsen many
problems with the current family of network
protocols. For instance, assignment and
management of IP addresses, which is a
problem even in LAN environments, is
especially difficult over circuit-switched
point-to-point links (such as dialup modem
servers). PPP addresses these issues using
NCPs.
10
• PPP permits multiple Network layer
protocols to operate on the same
communications link. For every Network
layer protocol used, PPP uses a separate
NCP. For example, IP uses the IP Control
Protocol (IPCP), and IPX uses the Novell
IPX Control Protocol (IPXCP).
11
Establishing a PPP Session
• The figure shows the three phases of
establishing a PPP session:
1- Phase 1: Link establishment and
configuration negotiation
2- Phase 2: Link quality determination
(optional)
3- Phase 3: Network layer protocol
configuration negotiation
12
13
Phase 1: Link establishment and
configuration negotiation
• Before PPP exchanges any Network layer
datagrams (for example, IP), the LCP must
first open the connection and negotiate
configuration options. This phase is
complete when the receiving router sends a
configuration-acknowledgment frame back
to the router initiating the connection.
14
Phase 2: Link quality determination
(optional)
• The LCP tests the link to determine whether
the link quality is sufficient to bring up
Network layer protocols. The LCP can
delay transmission of Network layer
protocol information until this phase is
complete.
15
Phase 3: Network layer protocol
configuration negotiation
• After the LCP has finished the link quality
determination phase, the appropriate NCP
can separately configure the Network layer
protocols, and bring them up and take them
down at any time. If the LCP closes the
link, it informs the Network layer protocols
so that they can take appropriate action.
16
• The link remains configured for
communications until explicit LCP or NCP
frames close the link, or until some external
event occurs (for example, an inactivity
timer expires or a user intervenes). The LCP
can terminate the link at any time. This is
usually done when one of the routers
requests termination, but can happen
because of a physical event, such as the loss
of a carrier or the expiration of an idleperiod timer.

المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .