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? Sociological theories

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أستاذ المادة عبد المهدي عبد الرضا حسن الشحماني       16/10/2019 17:06:39

? Sociological theories
? Functionalist انطباعperspective
? Conflict perspective
? Interaction perspective
? Post modern perspective
? Foundersمؤسس of the functionalist perspective :منظور وظيفي
? August Comte (1798-1857)
? Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
? Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
? August Comte (1798-1857) "father of sociology"
? The science about society
– social physics
? Comte invented the term sociology
? Evolutionist
? Positivist
? Comtes positivism
Comte s views of the three stages of the history of sciences. In order as follows, the stages are:
1. Theological - nature has a will of it s own. This stage is broken down into three stages of its own, including animismروحانية, polytheismشرك, and monotheismالتوحيد.
2. Metaphysical state - though substituting ideas for a personal will.
3. Positive - a search for absolute مطلقknowledge.
? Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
? Englishman
? Evolutionist – “survival of the fittest”اصلح
? Optimistمتفائل
? Laissez-faire الحرية الاقتصاديةliberalism
? Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
? Frenchman
? Evolutionistالنشوئي
? Division of labour
? Study of suicide
– “Anomy”
? Statistics applied in sociology
? Functionalism
? Society is a combination of different parts/institutions such as:
– Family, religion, economy and educational system
? These institutions secure the evolution and growth of society
? The characteristics of society
? Well planned uniformityزي موحد
? Stability and equilibrium between different parts
? Consensusاجماع of the main values
? Every institution has a function which helps society to remain stable
? What is, is good – “natural selection” of good institutions/functions
? Functionalistic research questions?
? Mapping, describing and analysing
– The positive functions
– The institutions
– (The dysfunctions)
? Assignmentمهمة
? Mention all main parts/institutions which you believe are the brick stonesاحجار قرميد of society. How do these parts work together in creating societies equilibrium?
? What are the main weaknesses of the functionalist perspective in describing society?
? Is it politically biased? If, then how?
? Conflict نزاع perspective
? Founders?
? Karl Marx (1818-1883)
– German revolutionist philosopher, sociologist and economist
? Friedrich Engels (1820-1895)
– German socialist philosopher
– Marxism
? Historical materialism
– “It is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence, but on the contrary, it is their social existence which determines their consciousness...”
? Dialecticجدلية
? Class struggleصراع
? National economy
? Socialismاشتراكية
? Communismشيوعية
? Conflict perspective in modern sociology
? Not only focusing on class struggleصراع as Marx did, but on the overall power structure in society, such as conflicts between different groups of interests
– Producers and consumersمستهلك, employers and employed, Muslims and Christians, teachers and students, parents and kids, personality and culture
? Conflict causes social change
? In every society there are conflicts; conflict is the driving force of social change
? Conflict does not necessary mean violence, rather tension, competitionمنافسة or disagreement about objectives and values, conflict of interests
? Research questions?
? Mapping of power-relations
? Someone is making benefit of the situation at the expense of someone else
? How can we dissolve the conflict? Can there be a win-winفوز solution?
? Conflict vs. functionalist perspective
? The conflict paradigm highlights parts of society where functionalists usually do not focus on
? The weakness of the conflict paradigmنموذج is that they miss the consensus- and balance in society
? Assignment
? The conflict paradigm presupposes that resources and power are limited, which in turn, creates tension and conflicts between different groups.
? Investigate some relationships within the school from the viewpoint of conflict theories, for example the relationship between teachers and students, or between school-board and students, or between pastime تسلية and studies.
? Assignment
? The functionalist paradigm presupposes that every part of society has a (positive) function.
? Investigate some relationships within the school from the viewpoint of functionalist perspective, for example the relationship between teachers and students, or between school-board and students, or between pastime and studies.
? Interaction perspective
Max Weber (1860-1920)
? Verstehen
– Understanding the meaning of human action
– Thought to be characteristic of the social sciences opposed to the natural sciences
? Identifies different kinds of authorities
– Traditional
– Charismatic
– Rational
? Ideal types
– Institutionalised social action
? Iron cage
? Interaction perspective/founders
? George Herbert Mead (1880-1949)
– Symbolic interaction
? Human behaviour has a deeper symbolic meaning
? Humans learn the meaning of social behaviour, by socialisation
? Erving Goffman (1922- )
– Role theory
? Objectivity/impartialityنزاهة
? Is objectivity possible in (social) sciences?
? Scientists have consciousness formed by their personal experience, they live in a certain culture, place and time, they have their personal interests
? Is objectivity desirable in science?
? Postmodernism/post structuralism
? Michel Foucault (1926-1984)
? History of madness and medicine
? History of sexuality
? The Archaeology of Knowledge
? Deconstruction
? Discourse/discourse analysis
? Plurality of knowledge and method
? Power and knowledge; Relativism


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