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inorganic pharmaceutical chemistry 4

الكلية كلية العلوم للبنات     القسم قسم الكيمياء     المرحلة 3
أستاذ المادة محمد حامد سعيد الدهيمي       12/11/2016 10:23:42
inorganic pharmaceutical chemistry 4
Orbital hybridisation
?hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory. Hybrid orbitals are very useful in the explanation of molecular geometry and atomic bonding properties.
Bonds will be formed by single electron occupied outer orbitals.
For example :-

The process of orbital hybridization may be envisioned as a mixing of the atomic orbitals to provide a new set of degenerate “ energetically equivalent “ orbitals having different spatial orientations and directional properties than the original atomic orbitals.
For example :-Sp hypridization orbitals , the “S” orbital has aspherical shape , a symmetrical so this “s” orbital shape has no influence of “p” orbital when they bonding due to its symmetric while “p” orbital force on “s” orbital and it has a high influence (loop) , and force “s” to be oriented along Z- axis so the result will be a lined on Z-axis with 180 .
i.e each loop will a lined away from its neigh boring . And this type of hybridiization is referred to as diagonal means each loop will be away or in opposite direction of the other loop
Types of hybridization
1- sp3 Methane (CH4)
Four sp3 orbitals.

Hybridization describes the bonding atoms from an atom s point of view. For a tetrahedrally coordinated carbon (e.g., methane CH4), the carbon should have 4 orbitals with the correct symmetry to bond to the 4 hydrogen atoms.

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