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inorganic pharmaceutical chemistry 3

الكلية كلية العلوم للبنات     القسم قسم الكيمياء     المرحلة 3
أستاذ المادة محمد حامد سعيد الدهيمي       12/11/2016 10:19:42
inorganic pharmaceutical chemistry 3

Ionization
The process of losing one or more electrons by chemical or physical means is known as ionization .
-The positive ion produced is termed a cation
- This process is distinctly different from the Aufbau process in that it is based in physical reality and should not be taken as the exact opposite of the process of atom buildup.
Reasons of ionization
- Relative orbital energies are subjected to change as electrons are placed in them.
-This means that a higher energy orbital in one atom may be of lower energy in a neighboring atom where it might be completely filled
- Usually atoms in the transition series with incompletely filled d orbitals will ionize to leave d ions , that is ions in which the outer shells are d orbitals which may contain from one to ten electrons depending on the atomic number .
Ex:-
Co -2e Co2+
[Ar]18 3d7 4s2 [Ar]18 3d7 4s0
Note:- This does not necessarily mean that booth electrons were lost from the 4s orbital , However , one or both electrons could have been removed from the 3d orbital followed by rearrangement of all the valence electrons into this orbital.
Atoms in which S or p orbitals are being filled will usually ionize to form ions with either inert gas or expanded outer shells. Those which form cations with inert gas shell structures include elements like sodium and magnesium
Element with ions having inert gas configuration corrsepond to the to the element in groups IA and IIA , and the inert gas shell of the ion in group VIIIA of the preceding period.
Similarly, elements in periods 2and 3 of groups IIIA ,IVA and VA tend to form cations with the preceding inert gas stricture. For example consider aluminum.
Note: - For more information, open the attached file

المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .