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2 Analytical Chemistry

الكلية كلية العلوم للبنات     القسم قسم الكيمياء     المرحلة 1
أستاذ المادة محمد حامد سعيد الدهيمي       15/12/2012 18:31:28
Analytical Chemistry
Lecture No. 2 Date :2 /12/ 2012
Dr. Mohammed Hamed
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Analytical Chemistry
Definition: Analytical chemistry is the chemistry discipline concerned with the chemical composition of materials. Analytical chemistry also is concerned with developing the tools used to examine chemical compositions.

Analytical Chemistry deals with methods for determining the chemical composition of samples of matter. A qualitative method yields information about the identity of atomic or molecular species or the functional groups in the sample; a quantitative method, in contrast, provides numerical information as to the relative amount of one or more of these components.
Analytical methods are often classified as being either classical or instrumental.
classical methods :-
In the early years of chemistry, most analyses were carried out by separating components of interest in a sample by precipitation, extraction, or distillation. For quantitative analyses, the separated components were then treated with reagents that yielded products that could be recognized by their colors, boiling points or melting points, their solubility in a series of solvents, their odors, their optical activities, or their refractive indexes.
Qualitative analysis consists of methods for establishing the qualitative chemical composition of a substance—that is, the identification of atoms, ions, and molecules that enter into the composition of the substance being analyzed. The most important characteristics of all methods of qualitative analysis are specificity and sensitivity. Specificity characterizes the ability to detect the presence of an unknown element in the presence of other elements—for example, iron in the presence of nickel, manganese, chromium, vanadium, or silicon. Sensitivity is defined as the smallest quantity of an element that can be detected by a given method. Sensitivity of modern methods is expressed in magnitudes of the order of 1 mg (one millionth part of a gram).
Quantitative analysis consists of methods for determining the quantitative composition of materials—that is, the quantitative amounts of the chemical elements or of certain compounds in the analyzed substance. Along with specificity and sensitivity, the most important characteristic of every method of quantitative analysis is accuracy.
quantitative analyses, the amount of analyte was determined by gravimetric or by titrimetric measurement.
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