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# ntroduction

الكلية كلية الهندسة     القسم  الهندسة المدنية     المرحلة 2
أستاذ المادة كاظم نايف كاظم اليساري       10/07/2018 05:55:14
• Surveying is defined as “taking a general view of, by observation and measurement determining the boundaries, size, position, quantity, condition, value etc. of land, estates, building, farms mines etc. and finally presenting the survey data in a suitable form”. This covers the work of the valuation surveyor, the quantity surveyor, the building surveyor, the mining surveyor and so forth, as well as the land surveyor.
• Another school of thought define surveying “as the act of making measurement of the relative position of natural and manmade features on earth’s surface and the presentation of this information either graphically or numerically
The process of surveying is therefore in three stages namely:
(i) Taking a general view
This part of the definition is important as it indicates the need to obtain an overall picture of what is required before any type of survey work is undertaken. In land surveying, this is achieved during the reconnaissance study.
(ii) Observation and Measurement
This part of the definition denotes the next stage of any survey, which in land surveying constitutes the measurement to determine the relative position and sizes of natural and artificial features on the land.
(iii) Presentation of Data:
The data collected in any survey must be presented in a form which allows the information to be clearly interpreted and understood by others. This presentation may take the form of written report, bills of quantities, datasheets, drawings and in land surveying maps and plan showing the features on the land.
Types of Surveying
On the basis of whether the curvature of the earth is taken into account or not

المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .