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energ sources

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الكلية كلية التربية للعلوم الصرفة     القسم قسم الفيزياء     المرحلة 7
أستاذ المادة بهاء حسين صالح ربيع الحسيني       10/04/2019 08:37:58
Energy sources
There are five ultimate primary sources of useful energy:
1 The Sun.
2 The motion and gravitational potential of the Sun, Moon and Earth.
3 Geothermal energy from cooling, chemical reactions and radioactive decay in the Earth.
4 Human-induced nuclear reactions. 5 Chemical reactions from mineral sources.
Renewableenergyderivescontinuouslyfromsources1,2and3(aquifers). Finite energy derives from sources
1 (fossil fuels), 3 (hot rocks), 4 and 5. The sources of most significance for global energy supplies are 1
and 4. The fifth category is relatively minor, but useful for primary batteries, e.g. dry cells.
Environmental energy
The flows of energy passing continuously as renewable energy through the Earth. For instance, total
solar flux absorbed at sea level is about 12×1017 W.
Thus the solar flux reaching the Earth’s surface is ?20MW per person; 20MW is the power of ten very
large
Storage after energy transformation, e.g. battery charging or hydrogen production ,is also possible and
may become increase inglyimportant especially in small systems. Thermal storage is already common.
3 Load control. Parallel arrangements of end-uses may be switched and controlled so as to present
optimum total load to the supply. An example of a microhydro load controller for household power is
shown in Figure 1.5(c) (see also Section 8.6). The principle may be applied on a small or large scale, but
is perhaps most advantageous when many varied end-uses are available locally. There are considerable
advantages if load control is applied to renewable energy systems

المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .
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