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# Photoelectric effect

الكلية كلية التربية للعلوم الصرفة     القسم قسم الفيزياء     المرحلة 3
أستاذ المادة فؤاد عطية مجيد       04/11/2018 17:47:53
For a given electrode material, no photoemission exists at all below a certain
frequency of the incident light. When the frequency increases, the emission
begins at a certain frequency. The frequency is called threshold frequency ( o ? )
of the material. The threshold frequency has to be measured in the existence of
e.m.f. (electromotive force) as at such a case the photoelectrons have no kinetic
energy to move from the cathode to anode. Different electrode material has
different threshold frequency.
2. The rate of electron emission is directly proportional to the intensity of the
incident light.
3. Increasing the intensity of the incident light does not increase the kinetic energy
of the photoelectrons.
4. There is no measurable time delay between irradiating the electrode and the
emission of photoelectrons, even when the light is of very low intensity. As soon
as the electrode is irradiated, photoelectrons are ejected.
5. The photoelectric current is deeply affected by the nature of the electrodes and
chemical contamination of their surface.
K ? eV max
(1) In 1905, Einstein solved the photoelectric effect problem by applying the
Planck’s hypothesis. He pointed out that Planck’s quantization hypothesis
applied not only to the emission of radiation by a material object but also to its
transmission and its absorption by another material object. The light is not only
electromagnetic waves but also a quantum. All the effects of photoelectric
emission can be readily explained from the following assumptions: The
photoemission of an electron from a cathode occurs when an electron absorbs a
photon of the incident light;
(2) The photon energy is calculated by the Planck’s quantum relationship: E = h?.
o ?
(3) The minimum energy is required to release an electron from the surface of the
cathode. The minimum energy is the characteristic of the cathode material and
the nature of its surface. It is called work function ( ? ).
The equation for the photoelectric emission can be written out by supposing the
photon energy is completely absorbed by the electron. After this absorption, the
kinetic energy of the electron should have the energy of the photon. If this energy is
greater than the work function of the material, the electron should become a
photoelectron and jumps out of the material and probably have some kinetic
energy.
Therefore we have the equation of photoelectric effect:

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