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# Fluid Mechanics

الكلية كلية التربية للعلوم الصرفة     القسم قسم الفيزياء     المرحلة 1
أستاذ المادة فؤاد عطية مجيد       29/05/2018 09:37:37
Module1 : Lecture 1
BASIC CONCEPTS AND PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS
BASIC CONCEPTS
• Mechanics is the oldest physical science that deals with both stationery and moving boundaries under the influence of forces. The branch of the mechanics that deals with bodies at rest is called statics while the branch that deals with bodies in motion is called dynamics.
• Fluid Mechanics is the science that deals with behavior of fluids at rest (fluid statics) or in motion (fluid dynamics) and the interaction of fluids with solids or other fluids at the boundaries.
• A substance in liquid / gas phase is referred as ‘fluid’. Distinction between a solid & a fluid is made on the basis of substance’s ability to resist an applied shear (tangential) stress that tends to change its shape. A solid can resist an applied shear by deforming its shape whereas a fluid deforms continuously under the influence of shear stress, no matter how small is its shape. In solids, stress is proportional to strain, but in fluids, stress is proportional to ‘strain rate.’
Fig. 1.1.1: Illustration of solid and fluid deformation.
Referring to Fig. 1.1.1, the shear modulus of solid ()S and coefficient of viscosity ()? for fluid can defined in the following manner;
()()()()ShearstressShearstress;ShearstrainShearstrain rateFAFASxhuh?====?? (1.1.1)
Here, the shear force ()F is acting on the certain cross-sectional area ()A, h is the height of the solid block / height between two adjacent layer of the fluid element, x?is the elongation of the solid block and u?is the velocity gradient between two adjacent layers of the fluid.
NPTEL –

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