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Nuclides, Isotopes, Isobars

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الكلية كلية التربية للعلوم الصرفة     القسم قسم الفيزياء     المرحلة 7
أستاذ المادة بهاء حسين صالح ربيع الحسيني       29/03/2017 07:48:58
Nuclides, Isotopes, Isobars
It is convenient to classify atoms by similarities with other atoms. The term nuclide is the most general term that describes an atom. Any atom can be referred to as a nuclide, without making any implications about element groupings or other properties of that atom.
As stated earlier, an element is a group of nuclides with the same number of protons. However, there can be different numbers of neutrons present in the nucleus for atoms of the same element. Atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes of that element. This is illustrated for the three isotopes of the element hydrogen:
Hydrogen-1 (1 proton, 0 neutrons, A=1) 11H
Hydrogen-2 (1 proton, 1 neutron, A=2) 12H
Hydrogen-3 (1 proton, 2 neutrons, A=3) 13H
Isobars are defined as nuclides having the same mass number (A) but different atomic numbers (Z). Example: I-131, Te-131 and Se-131 are isobars. This term is rarely used
The energies involved for individual reactions at the atomic level are small compared to everyday electrical and mechanical processes requiring huge numbers of atoms. The unit of energy used most frequently in atomic physics is the electron volt, or eV. An electron volt is defined as the amount of energy acquired by an electron when it falls through a difference in potential of 1 volt.
UW Environmental Health and Safety Page Phy-6 January 2006 Section 1 – Basic Radiation Physics Principles of Radiation Protection


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