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Golgi apparatus

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الكلية كلية الصيدلة     القسم  فرع العلوم الاساسية     المرحلة 1
أستاذ المادة رفاه سليم حسن المطيري       08/12/2016 08:54:31
Golgi apparatus
The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
Part of the cellular endomembrane system, the Golgi apparatus packages proteins inside the cell before they are sent to their destination; it is particularly important in the processing of proteins for secretion.
Structure::
Golgi is composed of stacks of membrane-bound structures known as cisternae (singular: cisterna). A mammalian cell typically contains 40 to 100 stacks. The cisternae stack has four functional regions: the cis-Golgi network, medial-Golgi, endo- Golgi, and trans-Golgi network. Vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum fuse with the network and subsequently progress through the stack to the trans Golgi network, where they are packaged and sent to their destination. Each region contains different enzymes which selectively modify the contents depending on where they reside. The cisternae also carry structural proteins important for their maintenance as flattened membranes which stack upon each other.
Function::
Cells synthesize a large number of different macromolecules. The Golgi apparatus is integral in modifying, sorting, and packaging these macromolecules for cell secretion. (exocytosis) or use within the cell. It primarily modifies proteins delivered from the rough endoplasmic reticulum but is also involved in the transport of lipids around the cell, and the creation of lysosomes. In this respect it can be thought of as similar to a post office; it packages and labels items which it then sends to different parts of the cell. Enzymes within the cisternae are able to modify the proteins by addition of carbohydrates (glycosylation) and phosphates (phosphorylation).


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