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endocrine system

الكلية كلية الصيدلة     القسم  فرع العلوم الاساسية     المرحلة 1
أستاذ المادة رفاه سليم حسن المطيري       10/05/2016 18:34:32
Thyroid Gland
The thyroid gland is characterized by numerous spherical follicles with
variable diameters, The follicular cells that surround the follicles secrete
and store their product in the lumen of the follicles as a gelatinous
substance (colloid). The colloid is composed of thyroglobulin (thyroid
hormones T4,T3) are stored in the form of colloid.
In addition to the follicular cells, the thyroid gland contains another
secretory cell type, the parafollicular cells . They occur as single cells or
in clumps on the periphery of the follicles. They stain lightly and are
clearly visible in this illustration of canine thyroid. Parafollicular cells
synthesize and secrete the hormone calcitonin. The connective tissue septa from the thyroid gland capsule extend into
the gland s interior, dividing it into lobules . Extensive distribution of
blood vessels, arterioles , venules , and capillaries , is seen within the
connective tissue septa and around the individual follicles.
Adrenal (Suprarenal) Gland
The adrenal glands are paired and are situated near the superior pole of the kidneys. Each gland is surrounded by a connective tissue capsule and consists of an outer cortex and an inner medulla.
The adrenal cortex is subdivided into three concentric
Zones :
1. zona glomerulosa : The cells in this zone are arranged into ovoid groups. The cytoplasm of these cells contains sparse lipid droplets,and nuclei stain dark. This zone produce aldosterone .
2.zona fasciculata : whose cells are arranged into columns or plates with radial arrangement, the nuclei of these cells are vesicular.In this zone cortisol and cortisone are produced .
3.zona reticularis: It is composed of small, dark cells arranged in irregularly anastomosing cords , the cells of the zona reticularis are believed to produce sex steroids(Androgens).
The medulla of adrenal gland is composed of large, granule-containing chromaffin cells arranged in short cords.There are two types of chromaffin cells :one produes epinephrine,while the other manufactures norepinephrine . Additionally, large autonomic ganglion cells are also present. A characteristic of the medulla is the presence of large veins

المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .