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Neuroanatomy: Lab 4 checklist

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أستاذ المادة فراس محمد غازي الخفاجي       05/05/2017 07:46:47
Practical Anatomy LAB 4 Dr. Firas M. Ghazi
Further assistance on: Page 1
University website: http://staff.uobabylon.edu.iq/site.aspx?id=93
Cerebrum: functional areas and blood supply of cortex
Curricular Objectives:
By the end of this lab students are expected to be able to
1. List & Locate the important functional areas of cerebral cortex
2. Name the main connections of each of the functional areas
3. Trace the three main cerebral arteries (origin, course and distribution)
4. Distinguish the cerebral artery of each cerebral functional area
5. Predict the functional loss caused by impaired blood flow in each of 3 main arteries
? Common clinical problems related to cerebrum
1. Cerebral infarction and hemorrhage
2. Cerebral damage by external trauma
3. Brain tumor involving cerebrum
? Key concepts and terms:
? Brodmann areas: Cerebral cortex is divided into 52 areas numbered in the order in which they were studied. Brodmann (a German neurologist) identified these areas based on various histological characteristics (EX: cortical thickness, cell types within each layer).
? Homunculus: A figure of human body parts, superimposed on the surface of the brain; used to demonstrate the motor and sensory cortical regions supplying each part of the body
? Cerebral dominance: > 90% of adults are right-handed (their left hemisphere is dominant). Language perception and speech are controlled by dominant hemisphere. Recognition of faces is controlled by non-dominant hemisphere.
? Main functional areas of the cerebral cortex
? Frontal lobe
1. Primary motor cortex (B4)
o Location: precentral gyrus and paracentral lobule (anterior part).
o Projecting axons:
1. Corticobulbar (Corticonuclear) tract (cortex -> nuclei of cranial nerves)
2. Corticospinal tract (cortex-anterior horn cells of spinal cord)
o Function: movements of the following groups of skeletal muscles
1. Limbs (Contralateral side only)
2. Extraocular, laryngeal, pharyngeal, tongue, & forehead muscles (Bilaterally)
o Inverted Homunculus: body parts are inversely represented. Tongue is on lower part near to lateral sulcus/lower limb is on anterior part of paracentral lobule.
o Damage: spastic paralysis of contralateral limb muscles.
2. Premotor & supplementary motor cortex (B6)
o Location: anterior to precentral gyrus & paracentral lobule respectively
o Function: design & store programmed movements depending on experiences
3. Frontal eye field
o Location: small area anterior to premotor cortex
o Function: regulate conjugate movements of the eyes (toward opposite side)
4. Broca’s speech area (B44,45)
o Location: at the upper lip of the lateral sulcus just anterior to motor area
o Function: control the programmed motor movements of speech.
o Damage: Dominant hemisphere/ Patient speaks slowly (expressive aphasia)
Practical Anatomy LAB 4 Dr. Firas M. Ghazi
Further assistance on: Page 2
University website: http://staff.uobabylon.edu.iq/site.aspx?id=93
5. Prefrontal cortex
o Location: most of the anterior part of frontal lobe
o Function: complex brain tasks, EX: abstract thinking, decision making & behavior
? Parietal lobe:
1. Primary somatosensory cortex
o Location: post-central gyrus and para-central lobule (posterior part).
o Input: Thalamus
o Inverted Homunculus
o Cortical surface area allocated to each part of body is directly proportional to number of sensory receptors present in that part (not to the size of that part)
o Function: receive sensation from
1. Contralateral side
2. Both sides (pharynx, larynx, perineum)
2. Secondary and association somatosensory cortex
o Location: posterior to postcentral gyrus
o Function:
? Stereognosis: ability to identify objects held in (opposite) hand while eyes are closed. (somatosensory association cortex)
Note: the function of secondary somatosensory area is not yet fully understood
? Occipital Lobe
1. Primary visual area (B17)
o Location: superior and inferior walls of the posterior part of the calcarine sulcus.
o Input: Retina
o Function: vision of contralateral half of the visual field (temporal half of the ipsilateral retina and nasal half of the contralateral retina.
Note: macula lutea (within retina) is represented on the posterior part of B17 and accounts for one third of visual cortex.
2. Secondary visual area
o Location: surrounds the primary visual area
o Function: recognition and appreciation of what is seen
? Temporal Lobe
1. Primary auditory area
o Location: inferior wall of lateral sulcus (opposite to lower end of central sulcus)
o Function: reception of sounds
o Input: organ of corti ( contralateral side mainly with some ipsilateral fibers)
2. Sensory speech area of Wernicke
o Location: left (dominant) hemisphere mainly in the superior temporal gyrus, with extensions around the posterior end of the lateral sulcus into the parietal region.
o Connection: with Broca area by arcuate fasciculus.
o Input: Visual cortex /Auditory cortex
o Functions:
1. Understanding of written language (read and understand)
2. Understanding of spoken language (hear and understand)
o Destruction (dominanat hemisphere): receptive (fluent) aphasia
? Poor comprehension of speech
? Speak faster than normal
Practical Anatomy LAB 4 Dr. Firas M. Ghazi
Further assistance on: Page 3
University website: http://staff.uobabylon.edu.iq/site.aspx?id=93
? Difficulty in finding the right words to express
? Blood supply of cerebrum
? Blood supply to brain is derived from two internal carotid arteries and two vertebral arteries.
? Internal carotid artery
o Course milestones:
? Carotid canal
? Side of body of sphenoid (within cavernous sinus)
? Medial to anterior clinoid process (within Subarachnoid space)
? Medial end of lateral sulcus (bifurcate)
? Divides into the anterior and middle cerebral arteries
o Important branches:
1. Ophthalmic artery (through optic canal to the eye and other structures)
2. Posterior communicating artery (to the circle of willis)
? Vertebral artery
o Course mile stones
? Foramen magnum (enter subarachnoid space)
? Lower border of pons
? Joins the opposite vertebral vessel to form the basilar artery.
? Basilar artery
o Course mile stones
? Anterior surface of pons from lower to upper borders
? Divides into two posterior cerebral arteries.
? Anterior cerebral artery (ACA)
o Course milestones:
? Longitudinal cerebral fissure
? Joined to the opposite ACA by anterior communicating artery
? Backward over the corpus callosum
o Distribution:
? Medial surface of cerebrum back to parietooccipital sulcus (motor area of leg)
? Middle cerebral artery (MCA)
o Course milestones:
? Along the depth of lateral sulcus
o Distribution:
? Lateral surface of hemisphere (all motor area except leg area)
? Posterior cerebral artery
o Course milestones:
? Backward around midbrain
? On the inferior surface of temporal lobe
o Distribution:
? Occipital pole
? Inferolateral and medial surfaces of the temporal lobe
? Lateral and medial surfaces of occipital lobe.
? Supplies the visual cortex
Practical Anatomy LAB 4 Dr. Firas M. Ghazi
Further assistance on: Page 4
University website: http://staff.uobabylon.edu.iq/site.aspx?id=93
Lab check list
A) Important functional areas
? Frontal lobe:
1. Primary motor area
2. Brocas area
? Parietal lobe:
1. Primary sensory area
? Occipital lobe:
1. Primary visual area
2. Visual association area
? Temporal lobe:
1. Primary auditory area
2. Wernicks area
B) Main arteries
1. Internal carotid artery
2. Vertebral artery
3. Basilar artery
4. Anterior cerebral artery
5. Middle cerebral artery
6. Posterior cerebral artery
7. Anterior communicating artery

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