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Neuroanatomy: Lab 3 checklist

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الكلية كلية الطب     القسم  التشريح والانسجة     المرحلة 2
أستاذ المادة فراس محمد غازي الخفاجي       24/04/2017 14:33:26
Neuro-anatomy LAB 3 Dr. Firas M. Ghazi
Further assistance on: Page 1
University website: http://staff.uobabylon.edu.iq/site.aspx?id=93
Cerebrum: Gross and internal features
Objectives:
By the end of this lab students are expected to be able to
1. Locate the four main lobes of each cerebral hemisphere
2. Distinguish the four large sulci marking the cortical surface
3. Identify main sulci and gyri featuring the lateral, medial and inferior surfaces
4. Locate the cortex, white matter, & other internal structures of cerebral hemisphere
5. Locate the basal nuclei and lateral ventricle and the thalamus in a transverse section
6. Identify the gray and white matters in a CT scan
Selected references and suggested resources
? Clinical neuroanatomy , Richard S. Snell, 7th edition
? Grant s Atlas of Anatomy, 13th Edition
? McMinn s Clinical Atlas of Human Anatomy, 7th Edition
? Anatomy for Babylon Medical Students (Facebook page)
? Anatomy for Babylon Medical Students (YouTube channel)
? Human Anatomy Education (Facebook page)
? Human anatomy education (YouTube channel)
Lab check list
A: Gross features:
? longitudinal cerebral fissure: a deep cleft separates the right and left hemispheres
? Corpus callosum: a mass of white matter at the depth of the longitudinal fissure connect the right and left cerebral hemispheres
? Gyri and sulci: folds and fissures seen on the surface of the hemispheres. This arrangement help increase the surface area of the cerebral cortex.
? 4 large sulci divide each hemisphere into 4 main lobes
1. Lateral sulcus:
o Deep cleft, mainly on the lateral surface of the hemisphere
o Run posteriorly
o Separate the temporal lobe below from the frontal and parietal lobes above
2. Central:
o Indents the superior medial border of the hemisphere.
o Runs downward and forward on the superolateral surface of hemisphere.
o Lies between two parallel gyri
o Separated from the lateral sulcus by a narrow gyrus
o Separate the frontal lobe anteriorly from the parietal lobe posteriorly
3. Calcarine:
o On the medial surface of each hemisphere
o Starts at the posterior end of corpus callosum
o Run backward to reach the occipital pole
4. Parieto-occipital:
o Mainly on the medial surface of each hemisphere
o Starts halfway of the calcarine sulcus (making a Y shaped sulcus with it)
o Passes up and backward to reaches the supero-medial border of cerebral hemisphere
o Separate the parietal lobe anteriorly from the occipital lobe behind
Neuro-anatomy LAB 3 Dr. Firas M. Ghazi
Further assistance on: Page 2
University website: http://staff.uobabylon.edu.iq/site.aspx?id=93
? Superolateral (lateral) surface:
1. Frontal lobe: anterior to central sulcus/ above lateral sulcus
o Precentral sulcus: cortical fissure parallel and anterior to central sulcus
o Precentral gyrus: cortical fold just anterior to central sulcus (between central and precentral sulci)
2. Parietal lobe: Posterior to central sulcus/ anterior to parieto-occipital sulcus
o Postcentral sulcus: the cortical fissure parallel and posterior to the central sulcus
o Postcentral gyrus: the cortical fold just posterior to central sulcus (between central and postcentral sulci)
3. Temporal lobe: Inferior to the lateral sulcus/ anterior to pre-occipital notch
4. Occipital lobe
? Medial surface:
Note: lobes are not clear
1. Corpus callosum
2. Callosal sulcus: fissure above corpus callosum
3. Cingulate gyrus: cortical fold above callosal sulcus
4. Cingulate sulcus: above cingulate gyrus
5. Paracentral lobule: cortical area around the indentation produced by central Sulcus
6. Precuneus: cortical area anterior to parieto-occipital sulcus.
7. Cuneus: cortical area between the parieto-occipital and calcarine sulci.
8. Lingual gyrus: cortical fold below the calcarine sulcus
? Inferior surface:
1. Orbital surface of frontal lobe:
o Olfactory bulb
2. Temporal and occipital lobes:
o Collateral sulcus: the medial of two parallel sulci
o Parahippocampal gyrus: cortical fold medial to the collateral sulcus
o Uncus: anterior termination of parahippocampal gyrus
B: Internal features:
? Cerebral cortex
? White matter
? Insula
o Cerebral cortex folded into white matter
? Basal nuclei
o Masses of gray matter situated within white matter of each cerebral hemisphere
? Lateral ventricles
o A cavity within the cerebral hemisphere
? Thalamus
o Medial to basal nuclei

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