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The new born and family Adjustment to extra uterine life

الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التخصصات التمريضية     المرحلة 3
أستاذ المادة عبد المهدي عبد الرضا حسن الشحماني       07/02/2020 04:39:11














The new born and family




Adjustment to extra uterine
life

















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Immediate new born and family
Adjustment to extra uterine life:








































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• The most important physiological change
required from the neonate after birth is the
transition from fetal/placental circulation to
independent respiration.
• The first 24 hours of life are very critical
because respiratory distress or circulatory
failure can occur rapidly with little warning.
• Changes in the various organs/systems
that lead to the adjustment to extra
uterine life include:






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Respiratory system:




First respiration is initiated by:
1. Chemical factors: after clamping the
umbilical cord O2 decrease, CO2 increase
and PH decrease, these changes in the
blood initiate impulses that excite the
respiratory center in the medulla.











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2. Thermal stimulus: this is due to sudden
chilling of the infant after delivery the
transfer from the warm uterus to the
cooler atmosphere excite sensory
impulses in the skin that are transmitted
to the respiratory center.















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What occurs during the first
breath?


• The air entering into the lungs with the
first breath is faced with the surface
tension of the fluid in the lungs & the
alveoli, this fluid is absorbed via the
lymphatic system & pulmonary capillaries
and part of it is removed by the labor
force








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• If delivery was by cesarean section the
lungs will not be compressed to help in
removing the fluid within them &
suctioning has to be done.
• The presence of surfactant helps in
reducing the surface tension in the alveoli
& without this substance the recoiling
characteristic of the lungs will permit any
air exchange to take place.











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Circulatory system:













































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• Initiation of respiration allows blood to
flow through the lungs leading to changes
in the circulation which are due to the
changes in the lungs, heart and major
blood vessels.
The changes are gradual and include:
• Closure of Foramen Ovali (closes
functionally soon after birth)
• Closure of Ductus Arteriosus (closes
functionally by 4th day of life)

• Closure of Ductus Venosus, clamed
(extension of the umbilical cord)









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• The expansion of the lungs causes the
pulmonary vessels to dilate decreasing the
vascular resistance in the lungs so the
pulmonary blood flow increase, so the
pressure in the Rt atrium, Rt ventricle &
pulmonary artery decrease.




• The most important primary factor
controlling ductal closure is the high
concentration of Oxygen level in the
blood.




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Secondary factors are:
• Decrease in endogenous prostaglandin
and acidosis
• Murmur may be present because these
changes are gradual and cyanosis may
occur during crying or straining















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Physiological status of other
systems:


• Thermoregulation: It is very important
after establishment of respiration, the
newborn’s heat production is adequate but
there are factors that predispose to heat
loss are:
– Large surface area; this is compensated for by
the flexed position which is the usual position
of the newborn
– The thin layer of subcutaneous fat

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Newborns lose heat by four separate mechanisms:
a. convection:يرارحلا لمحلا the Flowing of heat from
the newborn’s body surface to cooler surrounding air.




b. conduction: ليصوتلاis the transfer of body heat to
a cooler solid object in contact with a baby.




c. radiation: عاعشلإا:is the transfer of body heat to a
cooler solid object not in contact with the baby,




d. evaporation: رخبتلاis loss of heat through
conversion of a liquid to a vapor.


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Hemopoietic system:



The blood volume depends on the time of
clamping of the umbilical cord, which may
increase 100 ml if it is closed after the
cessation of pulsation in the cord. Blood
volume in the full term newborn is 80-
85ml/kg (total is 300ml)
Hemoglobin level averages 17 to 18 g/100 mL
of blood . The Hematocrit is between 45%
and 50%.









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• Fluid & electrolyte balance: at term total
body fluid is 73% (adult 58%). The infant
has higher ratio of extra cellular fluid than
the adult and also higher level of total
body sodium & chloride and lower level of
potassium, magnesium& phosphate.




















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• The infant’s rate of metabolism is twice as
great in relation to body weight than the
adult so twice as much acid is formed that
may lead to acidosis.




























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Gastrointestinal system:




• Enzymes are adequate to handle proteins
and simple sugar
• Deficient production of pancreatic
amylase impairs utilization of complex
carbohydrate also decreased lipase limits
absorption of fat high saturated fatty
acids.







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• The Liver is the most immature organ in
the gastrointestinal system, the reduction
of Glucuronyl transferase affects the
conjugation of bilirubin with Glucuronic
acid which contribute to the physiologic
jaundice of the newborn.





















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• Deficient formation of plasma proteins
causes edema
• Prothrombin & other coagulation factors
are low
• Less amount of glycogen is stored leading
to hypoglycemia which is prevented by
early breast feeding
















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• Saliva is produced adequately by 2-3
months
• Stomach capacity is 90ml
• The intestine is relatively longer with big
number of secretary glands and large
absorption surface.
• The peristaltic waves are rapid in the
intestines but slow in the esophagus &
with the relaxed cardiac sphincter
regurgitation is common.



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• Progressive change in the stooling pattern
is sign of properly functioning G I system
• Meconium is passed within the 1st 36
hours – transitional stools 3rd day after
feeding then milk stools 4th day
• In breast fed infants stools are yellow-
golden & frequent (6 times/day)
• In formula fed infants stools are pale
yellow-light brown firm offensive (1-3
times / day).





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Renal system:




• Concentration ability is diminished, total
urine volume 200-300ml by1st week.
• Bladder volume is 15ml about 20
voiding/day. Urine is colorless, odorless.
Specific gravity: 1.020. The newborn
should void within 1st 24hrs after birth.











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Integumentary system:




- The epidermis & the dermis are loosely
bound so blister will develop if the plaster
tape is removed rapidly.
- Sebaceous glands are active during fetal
life, vernex caseosa (white cheesy cream
like substance) covers most of the skin of
the newborn & mainly skin folds







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• Plugging of the sebaceous glands leads to
Milia; white spots over the nose & chin
• - Eccrine sweat glands active & produce
sweat in response to heat or emotional
stimuli in the newborn retention of sweat
leads to miliaria. These glands start
functioning at 34weeks of gestation. The
amount of sweat is used to assess pain in
the newborn.
• Apocrine glands are not active until
puberty.






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Musculoskeletal system:




• It contains cartilage more than ossified
bone. The process of ossification is rapid
during infancy.
• The muscular system is almost completely
formed at birth & growth in muscles is by
hypertrophy rather than hyperplasia of the
cells







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Neuromuscular System
Mature newborns demonstrate neuromuscular
function by moving their extremities,
attempting to control head movement,
exhibiting a strong cry, and demonstrating
newborn reflexes.
Limpness (Flaccidity) or total absence of a
muscular response to manipulation is never
normal and suggests narcosis, shock, or
cerebral injury.







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APPEARANCE OF A NEWBORN

Skin:
Color
Most term newborns have a ruddy complexion
because of the increased concentration of red
blood cells in blood vessels and a decrease in
the amount of subcutaneous fat, which makes
the blood vessels more visible.
Cyanosis :Generalized mottling of the skin is
common. Acrocyanosis is a normal
phenomenon in the 1st 24 to 48 hours after
birth;


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Hyperbilirubinemia : Hyperbilirubinemia leads
to jaundice, or yellowing of the skin. This
occurs on the second or third day of life in
about 50% of all newborns, as a result of a
breakdown of fetal red blood cells (physiologic
jaundice).
If the level rises to more than 10 to 12 mg/100
mL, the treatment which is usually considered
is: Phototherapy













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Phototherapy for hyperbilirubinemia


Harlequin Sign : Occasionally, because of
immature circulation, a newborn who has
been lying on his or her side appears red on
the dependent side of the body and pale on
the upper side.
Birthmarks
Mongolian Spots:
Mongolian spots are collections of pigment cells
(Melanocyte) that appear as gray patches across the
sacrum or buttocks and possibly on the arms and
legs






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Mongolian spot






Milia


Vernex caseosa is :a white, cream cheese–like
substance that serves as a skin lubricant in
utero. Usually, it is noticeable on a term
newborn’s skin, at least in the skin folds, at
birth.
During the 1st bath of vernex is washed away
slightly the bath is done when the newborn’s
body temperature stabilize.
Lanugo :is the fine, downy hair that covers a
newborn’s shoulders, back, and upper arms.








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Desquamation : Within 24 hours after birth,
the skin of most newborns has become
extremely dry. The dryness is particularly
evident on the palms of the hands and soles of
the feet.
Milia All newborn sebaceous glands are
immature. At least one pin-point white papule
(a plugged or unopened sebaceous gland) can
be found on the cheek or across the bridge of
the nose of almost every newborn.









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Head
A newborn’s head appears disproportionately
large because it is about one fourth of the
total body length; The forehead of a newborn
is large and prominent.
Molding
The part of the infant’s head that engaged
the cervix (usually the vertex) molds to ?t the
cervix contours during labor.
The head will restore to its normal shape
within a few days after birth.



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Caput succedaneum is edema of the scalp at
the presenting part of the head. It may
involve wide areas of the head, or it may
resemble a large egg. The edema, which
crosses the suture lines, is gradually absorbed
and disappears at about the third day of life.
It needs no treatment.
A cephalhematoma :a collection of blood
between the periosteum of a skull bone and
the bone itself, is caused by rupture of a
periosteal capillary because of the pressure of
birth. Swelling usually appears 24 hours
afterbirth. 36


















































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Nursing care of a newborn and family in
the post-partum period

Period newborns are usually kept in either a birthing
room or a transitional nursery for optimal safety in
the first few hours of life.
* Initial Feeding * Bathing * Sleeping Position
* Diaper Area Care * Umbilical care
* Metabolic Screening Tests
* Vitamin K Administration * Circumcision














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Apgar score assessment of the new born












































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• Apgar score interpretation:
• (1-4) High Risk
(5-7) Moderate Risk
(7-8) Small Risk.
(10) Normal











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Thank you for listening









































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المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .