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Psychoanalytic Counseling

الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التخصصات التمريضية     المرحلة 3
أستاذ المادة عبد المهدي عبد الرضا حسن الشحماني       07/11/2018 05:22:53


Psychoanalytic Counseling
• A moment’s insight is sometimes worth a life’s experience.
• Assistant professor
• Abdulmahdi A. Hasan
• Ph,D, pediatric & Mental Health Nursing ,
• College of Nursing, Babylon University
• Chapter Objectives
After reading this chapter, you should be able to:
• Outline the development of psychoanalysis and Sigmund Freud
• Explain the theory of psychoanalysis including its core concepts
• Discuss the counseling relationship and goals in psychoanalysis
• Describe assessment, process, and techniques in psychoanalysis
• Demonstrate some therapeutic techniques
• Clarify the effectiveness of psychoanalysis
• Discuss psychoanalytic play therapy
• Sigmund Freud
(1856-1939)
• Lived in Vienna for 80 years
• Noticed patients’ physical symptoms seemed to have mental base
• He began to get the idea that most of the forces at work were unconscious
• From this came the foundations for a theory of personality
• Sigmund Freud
• Developed his model of people over five decades of observing and writing
• Major principles were based on the clinical study of individual patients undergoing treatment for their problems
• The father of psychoanalysis and the grandfather of child psychoanalysis
• Nature of People
• Psychic determinism and unconscious mental processes
• People basically evil and victims of instincts that must be balanced
• To achieve balance people need a deep understanding of the forces that motivate them
• Psychic energy systems are the id, ego, superego
• Behavior determined by energy, unconscious motives and by instinctual and biological drives
• Basis
• Psychic determinism implies mental life is a continuous logical manifestation of cause-related relationships
• Unconscious mental processes are the causative factors that are unknown, below conscious level
• Thus people often do not understand feelings or actions
• Basis for much of what is involved in psychoanalysis
• Terms
• Unconscious
• Conscious
• Preconscious
• Subconscious
• Collective unconscious
• Theory Concepts
Structural
o Idهوية الشخصية
o Egoالغرور
o Superegoالانا العليا
Dynamic
o Instinctغريزة
o Cathexisتركيز فكري
o Anticathexisكبت الخواطر السيئة
o Anxiety
• Structural Concepts
• Id: basic instinctual drives and seeks pleasure.
• Ego: attempts to balance the desires of the id and the reality of the external world.
• Superego: personal moral standard
• Dynamic Concepts
• Instinct: inborn psychological representation
• Cathexis: directing energy toward an object that will satisfy a need.
• Anticathexis: ego’s restraint of the id’s impulses.
• Anxiety: conscious state that reflects the presence of an emotional experience by external or internal nervous energy.
• Developmental Concepts
• Defense mechanismsاسلوب الدفاع : operations of the mind that aim to ward off anxiety and depression; unconscious distortions of reality that reduce painful affect and conflict through automatic, habitual responses
• Psychosexualالنفسية Stages: succession of stages characterized by dominant mode of achieving libidinal pleasure and by specific developmental tasks
• Defense Mechanisms
• Identificationهوية
• Displacementالازاحة
• Repressionقمع and suppression
• Projectionاسقاط
• Reaction formationانعقاد ردة فعل
• Rationalizationترشيد
• Denialانكار
• Fantasyخيال
• Withdrawalانسحابي
• Intellectualizationذهني
• Regressionانحسار
• Fixationتثبيت
• Undoingخراب
• Acting outيتصرف بدافع
• Compensationتعويضات
• Sublimationتسام ي
• Psychosexual Stages
ORAL STAGE: Birth to 1 1/2 Years
o Adjust to the weaning process and learn to chew food
ANAL STAGE: 1 1/2 to 3 Years
o Regulation of natural functions
PHALLIC STAGE: 3 to 6 Years
o Oedipus/Electra complex
o Sexual desires and attitudes take shape
LATENCYوقت الاستجابة STAGE: 6 to 11 Years
o Developmental skills and activities
GENITAL STAGE: Adolescence
o Developing heterosexual relationships
• When analyzing children
• Develop a warm, friendly relationship
• Accept the child
• Create an atmosphere of permissiveness in the relationship
• Recognize the child’s feelings and reflect them
• Respect the child’s ability to solve problems
• Allow the child to lead and follow that lead
• Do not hurry
• Use only necessary limits (Merydith, 2007, p. 112).
• Process: Beginning
• Opening phase
o reasons for seeking treatment
o triggersاثار to current problems
o degree of distress of the client

• The elements of treatment
o building the therapeutic relationship
o exploring the client’s concerns
• Process: Middle phase
• Working through
o themes revisited and explored
o increase understanding of the forces, past patterns, and inner conflicts that are causing the client’s problems.
• The elements of treatment
o analysis of transference
o examination of other relationships
• Process: Final phase
• Ending
o goals have been reached
o transference is resolved
o separation is the next step
• Psychoanalytic Counseling and Self-Esteem
Simon’s six conditions for nurturing and maintaining self esteem and mental health:
• Belonging
• Child Advocacy
• Risk Management
• Empowerment
• Uniqueness
• Productivity
• Counseling Methods
CATHARSIS:
o Process of remembering, verbalizing, and emotionally reliving an early childhood event in order to eliminate the symptoms that had been caused by the event.
FREE ASSOCIATION:
o The process in which unconscious thoughts are brought to the conscious mind by vocalizing whatever thoughts or feelings come to mind.
INTERPRETATION:
o DREAMS - express wish fulfillment
o PARAPRAXIA - “Freudian Slips”
o HUMOR - Jokes, puns, satire are all acceptable means for unconscious urges to gain access to the conscious.
• Counseling Methods
ANALYSIS of TRANSFERENCE
o Client views the counselor as someone else
ANALYSIS of RESISTANCE
o Client resists the attempts of the counselor to help
ANALYSIS of INCOMPLETE SENTENCES
o Projective techniques to understand the client
BIBLIOCOUNSELING:
o Reading and discussing books about situations similar to clients’ issues
• Counseling Methods
STORYTELLING:
o Client tells a story and the counselor retells the story with better responses/alternatives
PSYCHOANALYTIC PLAY THERAPY
o Toys and games assist the counselor with putting the child at ease, creating an alliance, and discovering clues about the client’s inner life.
• Psychoanalytic Play Therapy
Fundamental goal: the child’s insight into self
• aim is moving past the current pain in
order to accept one’s self and develop
security, adaptability, and self-accepting
ways
• Psychoanalytic Play Therapy
More specific goals:
• decreasing suffering,
• recovering from trauma,
• adjusting to life,
• following a medical treatment plan,
• eliminating fears,
• advancing academically,
• managing anger, and accepting disabilities.
• Object Relations Theory
• Early family relationships affect relationships outside the family.
• Family relationships that model appropriate and healthy models for future relationship development are the best assistance children can have in learning to build relationships outside the family.


المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .