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Pneumonia

الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التخصصات التمريضية     المرحلة 3
أستاذ المادة عبد المهدي عبد الرضا حسن الشحماني       11/07/2018 08:24:10


Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.[4][13] Typically symptoms include some combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, and trouble breathing.[2] Severity is variable.[2]
Pneumonia is usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly by other microorganisms, certain medications and conditions such as autoimmune diseases.[4][5] Risk factors include other lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis, COPD, and asthma, diabetes, heart failure, a history of smoking, a poor ability to cough such as following a stroke, or a weak immune system.[6] Diagnosis is often based on the symptoms and physical examination.[7] Chest X-ray, blood tests, and cultureof the sputum may help confirm the diagnosis.[7] The disease may be classified by where it was acquired with community, hospital, or health care associated pneumonia.[14]
Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are available.[9] Other methods of prevention include handwashing and not smoking.[9] Treatment depends on the underlying cause.[15] Pneumonia believed to be due to bacteria is treated with antibiotics.[10] If the pneumonia is severe, the affected person is generally hospitalized.[15] Oxygen therapy may be used if oxygen levels are low.[10]
Pneumonia affects approximately 450 million people globally (7% of the population) and results in about 4 million deaths per year.[11][12] Pneumonia was regarded by William Osler in the 19th century as "the captain of the men of death".[16] With the introduction of antibiotics and vaccines in the 20th century, survival improved.[11] Nevertheless, in developing countries, and among the very old, the very young, and the chronically ill, pneumonia remains a leading cause of death.[11][17] Pneumonia often shortens suffering among those already close to death and has thus been called "the old man s friend".[18]


المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .