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Immunization

الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التخصصات التمريضية     المرحلة 3
أستاذ المادة عبد المهدي عبد الرضا حسن الشحماني       11/07/2018 07:43:37
Immunization
Immunity is the resistance that an individual has against disease.
Natural immunity : Innate immunity or resistance to infection or toxicity.
Acquired immunity : immunity from exposure to the invading agent , either bacteria , virus or toxin. Acquired immunity may be passive or active .
Active immunity : Immune bodies are actively formed against specific antigens ,either naturally by having had the disease clinically or sub-clinical or artificially by introducing the antigen (vaccine ) into the individual .
Passive immunity: Temporary immunity by transfusing plasma proteins either artificially from another human or an animal that has been actively , immunized against an antigen or naturally from the mother to the fetus via the placenta.
Antibody: A protein , found mostly in serum , that is formed in response to exposure to a specific antigen.
Antitoxin : Antibody formed in response to a toxin ( antigen).
Toxin: A poisonous substance , usually produced by the invading microorganisms.
Toxoid : A toxin that has been treated to destroy its toxic properties but retains its antigenic quality.
Antigen : A variety of foreign substance including bacteria, viruses , toxins and foreign protein that stimulate the formation of antibodies.
Immunization : is a process by which resistance to infection disease is induced or augmented.


* Children are immunized against infections diseases , all dangerous can be prevented through immunization the following table is recommended

Dose Route Age of the child Disease Vaccine
0.05 ml
2 drops
0.5 ml Intra dermal oral
Intra muscular From birth till one week Tuberculosis
Poliomyelitis
Hepatitis B infection B.C.G
O.P.V .zero dose
H.B.V.1
2 drops
0.5 ml

0.5 ml Oral
Intra muscular
Intra muscular
2 months Poliomyelitis
Hepatitis B infection.
diphtheria
Pertussis
Tetanus O.P.V
H.B.V.2
D.P.T 1
2 drops
0.5 ml Oral Intra muscular

4 months Poliomyelitis
diphtheria
Pertussis
Tetanus O.P.V 2
D.P.T 2
2 drops
0.5 ml

0.5 ml Oral
Intra muscular
Intra muscular 6 months Poliomyelitis
Hepatitis B infection.
diphtheria
Pertussis
Tetanus O.P.V3
D.P.T 2
H.B.V.3

0.5 ml Intra muscular 9 months measles Measles
2 drops
0.5 ml Oral
Intra muscular 18 months Poliomyelitis
diphtheria
Pertussis
Tetanus O.P.V1 Booster
D.P.T1Booster
2 drops
0.5 ml Oral
Intra muscular 4 years Poliomyelitis
diphtheria
Pertussis
Tetanus O.P.V2 Booster
D.P.T2Booste


General contra-indications include the following:
*Prior allergic reactions to the same or related vaccine .
*Live vaccines ie. OPV/BCG/ and measles are not to be administered in the following situations .
1.Immuno-suppressive theraoy.
2.Immuno-deficiency disorders
3.Leukemia, lymphoma or generalized malignancy.
Specific contra-indications to vaccines.
SPCIFIC CONTRA - INDICATIONS VACCINES
Clinical symptomatic HIV infection BCG
Any past history of seizures , other than febrile convulsions . especially if these occurred after any previous dose of DTP DPT
NIL. NOTE: if a child has diarrhea the OPV dose should be given , but not recorded in the regular schedule , the mother must schedule be told bring the child back as soon as the episode of diarrhea is over and another dose must be repeated and dully recorded. OPV
NIL MEASLES
NIL HEPATITIES-B


المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .