انت هنا الان : شبكة جامعة بابل > موقع الكلية > نظام التعليم الالكتروني > مشاهدة المحاضرة

Infant, Child & Adolescent Health

الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التخصصات التمريضية     المرحلة 3
أستاذ المادة عبد المهدي عبد الرضا حسن الشحماني       04/12/2017 03:01:49
Infant, Child & Adolescent

Health





Pediatric Nursing




Dr. Nihad Al Doori














1













Promoting Optimum Health





During Infancy
























2







Class objectives





?





?





?

?




Be familiar with feeding
recommendations for infants.
Identify sleep problems and
management during infancy.
Discuss infant’s dental care.
Be familiar with injury prevention
based on infants developmental
stage.









































3







Nutrition





?











?




Breast milk is first choice only
for first 6 months of life. No
supplements are needed.




The second acceptable diet is the
commercial iron-fortified formula.


?

(whole milk should not be introduced
until after one year of age).

















4







Number of feeds





?











?








?




During the first 6months, about 6
feeds /day, then decreased to 4-5
at the sixth month.




Total amount of milk to be given is
960ml /day.




If breast feeding is discontinued
Iron-fortified formula is substituted.









































5







Weaning from breast milk or bottle





?




It is the process of giving one method of feeding for
another usually changing breast or bottle feeding to a
cup feeding



Principles of weaning:
? need to be done gradually.
? The infant gives up a major source of oral
pleasure and gratification.
? There is no one best time for all infants
but the infant will show signs for
readiness.


?

The last feed to be discontinued is the night time
one.







6







Introducing solid foods





?








?



?





?





?




By 4-6 months the GI tract has matured
sufficiently to handle more complex nutrients and
is less sensitive to potentially allergic foods.


Introduce solids when infant is hungry.


Introduce foods at intervals of 4-7 days to allow
for identification of food allergies


As the amount of solid food increased the quantity
of milk decreased.


Do not introduce food by mixing it with formula in
the bottle.









































7







Solid food




?










?










?



Infant cereals is introduced first since it
is high in Iron (7mg of Iron/3 table
spoons of cereal).



Rice cereal is recommended to be
introduced first it is easily digestible and
low in allergic potential.



After the first six months cereal is mixed
with fruit juices. Vitamin C increases the
absorption of Iron from the cereals and
it is continued up to 18th month.


8







Solid food





?
















?




Fruit juice can be substituted for
one milk feed/day and it has to be
given by cup to prevent nursing
tooth caries.




Apple juice ,pear, prune, sweet
cherry, peach, and grape should
be avoided because they cause
abdominal pain and diarrhea.









































9







Solid food





?












?










?




At 8-9 months family cooked
vegetables, raw pieces of fruit (except
grapes) or cheese and yogurt can be
given.



By one year well cooked table foods can
be served, salt and sugar are not
added.



The Sequence is: strained fruits then
vegetables and finally meat.




10



















































11







Sleep and Activity



Most children are naturally active and do
not need stimulation.



Sleep:


?




?




?

By 3-4 months the infant develops
nocturnal pattern; 9-11hrs.
Total daily sleep hrs: 13-15hrs, with one
or two naps.
Breast fed infants sleep less periods
especially at night than bottle fed infants.





12







Sleep problems





?




Nighttime feeding


?

?

?

A need for middle of night bottle
Goes to sleep with bottle or beast feeding
Frequent awakening





?




Developmental night crying


?

Between 6-12 months, changes in
sleeping pattern
















13







Sleep problems





?




Refusal to go to bed


?

?

Resist bedtime and comes out of room
Might be frequent awakenings with refusal to
go back to sleep




?



Trained night crying


?

Child falls asleep in a place other than his own
bed




?



Nighttime fears


?

Fears going to bed because of nightmares










14







Sleep problems management



























Decrease activates around bedtime as
much as possible, have rituals limited
for bed time only.


Put the child awake in the crib don’t
allow to sleep in your arms, instead put
to bed once felt sleepy.


Do not use the bed for playing; it should
be only for sleeping, so the baby will
associate the bed with sleep and not
with activity.





15







Sleep problems management





?




?




?

?







?




Increase daytime feeding intervals to 4
hours or more
Offer last feeding as late as possible at
night
No bottles offered in bed
When child is crying, check at
progressively longer intervals each night,
reassure child but do not hold
Avoid rocking, taking to parent’s bed









































16







DENTAL CARE





1.

2.



3.

4.



5.




Begin care as soon as the primary teeth erupt
Cleaning teeth with a wet cloth by wiping them
gently later can use soft brush
Avoid extra sugar and giving the bottle while asleep
Avoid pacifiers coated with honey or hard candy
pacifiers
Water is preferred to paste



(Number of teeth in the first
year = age in months – 6)









17







Injury Prevention





?

?

?

?

?

?

?

?




Aspiration of foreign objects
Suffocation
Motor vehicle injuries
Falls
Rolls over
Poisoning
Burns
Drowning









































18






Nurse’s role in injury prevention





?









?




Be aware of possible cause of
injury for each age group.




Educate parents and family about
these causes and ways to prevent
it.









































19








Thanks for listening








Have a great day


المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .