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JEAN PIAGET

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أستاذ المادة عبد المهدي عبد الرضا حسن الشحماني       03/11/2017 05:46:39


JEAN PIAGET
Born in (Switzerland) on August 9, 1896. He died in Geneva on September 16, 1980.
Cognitive development
Cognitive development represents
a progression of mental abilities:
Illogical to logical thinking, from simple to complex problem solving,
and from understanding concrete ideas to understanding abstract concepts.
Piaget believed that cognitive development begins with an inborn ability to adapt to the environment. By rooting for nipple? exploring the boundaries of the room, young children develop a more accurate picture of their surrounding and greater competence in dealing with them.

Phases of Piaget’s cognitive developmental
theory:
1. Sensory –Motor Period (Birth to 2 years).
2. Preoperational Phase. 3-5 years old.
3. Concrete operations: 7-11 years of age
4. Formal Operational Period : 11 - 15/16 years
Phases of Piaget’s cognitive developmental
theory:
1. Sensory –Motor Period (Birth to 2 years).
In this stage infants explore the world only by senses like touch-putting his fingers in the mouth.
The child does not recognize himself as a separate organism.
Infants cannot distinguish themselves from their environment. We can divide this period into several sub-periods.
Piaget Theory (Cont.)
1. Sensorimotor stage.
This stage of cognitive development start at birth and lasts up to 2 years of age and is divided into 6 sub-stages:
I. Use of reflexes stage (0-1 month). Characterized by repetition of body movement due to reflexes and the infant is totally autistic (not responding to external stimuli)
Piaget Theory (Cont.)
I. Primary Circular reactions (1-4 months). Characterized by the following behaviors:
Recognize familiar faces and objects (e.g. mother and bottle)
Shows anticipation before feeding
Discover part of own body through touching
Awareness of strange surroundings indicates memory
Becomes bored when left alon
Accept anybody and no stranger anxiety is observed
Piaget Theory (Cont.)
I. Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months). Characterized by the following behaviors:
Search for object that had fallen from him (object permanency)
Able to tolerate some frustration and delayed gratification
Imitates sounds and simple gesture
Piaget Theory (Cont.)
Great interest in mirror image of himself
Beginning of independence (self-feeding)
Language development (few words) which is the beginning of recognition of symbols as type of communication
Realizes that parents are present even if not in visual field
Piaget Theory (Cont.)
IV. Secondary circular reactions(8-12 months). This sub-stage characterized by the following behaviors:
Beginning of intellectual reasoning manifested by active searches for a hidden object (Object Permanence: Concept that objects still exist when they are out of sight)
Associate symbols with events by comprehending meanings of words and simple commands and knowing the meaning of gestures (e.g. bye- bye)
Is able to put objects in container
Works to get toy that is out of reach
Get away from mother to explore surrounding
Piaget Theory (Cont.)
V. (After 12 months of age up to 18 months) Tertiary circular reactions.
1. Exploring distance
2. They try new activities and use trial and error in solving problems
3. Rituals are important
4. 18-24 Months. Mental combinations
( Inventions of new means)
? Children at this stage can mentally represent events - they no longer confined to trial and error to solve problems
? Symbolic thought allows toddlers to begin to think about events and anticipate their consequences without always resorting to action
? They can begin to demonstrate insight. Can use symbols as gestures and words, and can pretend
2. Preoperational Phase.
• Piaget s cognitive theory actually does not include a period specifically for children 3-5 years old.
• The preoperational phase comprises the age span from 2-7 years and is divided into two stages:
• The preconceptual phase, ages 2-4
• The phase of intuitive thought, ages 4-7.
During the preconceptual phase children are egocentric (e.g.. Can’t take others point of view).
While during the intuitive phase, there is a shift from totally egocentric thought to social awareness and the ability to consider other viewpoints. This transition is very closely associated with the development of the superego.
Piaget Theory (Cont.)
• The child is able to think and verbalize his mental processes without having to act out his thinking. However, he can only think of one idea at a time, a concept known as centration (inability to think of all parts in terms of the whole).
• Preschoolers judge what they see by the immediate perceptual clues given to them.
For example, if two lines are equal length are presented in such a way that one appears longer than the other, the child will state that one line is longer, even if he measures the lines with a ruler and finds that each has the same length. The child therefore judges experiences by outside appearance and results, not by intrinsic, logical thinking.
Piaget Theory (Cont.)
For the nurse to understand that children assimilators in their thinking and with verbal communication she will be able to understand the child.
For better communication it s important to use "play" as a vehicle to understand children of this age group.
Play becomes the child s work of understanding, adjusting to, and working out his life s experiences.
Because of the child s rich imagination and unlimited ability to invent and imitate, all kinds of play hold therapeutic and communicative value.
Piaget Theory (Cont.)
? Preschoolers increasingly use language without comprehending the meaning of words, particularly concepts of right or left, time, and causality.
? The child may use the concepts correctly but only in the circumstances he has learned them.
For example, he may know how to put on his shoes by remembering that the buckle is always on the outside of the foot. However, if different shoes have no buckles, he cannot reason which shoe fits which foot.
Piaget Theory (Cont.)
Their concept of death is, that it is being reversible.
Nurses must understand that time as a concept is best explained in relationship to an event, such as
" Your mother will visit you after you finish your lunch".
Avoiding terms such as yesterday, tomorrow, next week, to express when an event is expected to occur and associating time with usual expected daily occurrences help children learn about temporal relationship and increase their trust in others.
Children are usually not able to tell about the time in a clock until 7 or 8 years of age.
Piaget Theory (Cont.)
Preschoolers thinking is often described as magical. Because of their egocentrism, they believe that thoughts are all-powerful. A typical example is wishing a new sibling dead. If that sibling does die, young children think their wish caused the death.
Preschoolers believe in the power of words and accept their meaning literally.
A significant example of this type of thinking is calling the child "bad" because he did something wrong. In the child s mind telling him that he is bad means that he is bad. For this reason it is better to relate such words to the act by saying, for example, "That was a bad thing to do".
Piaget Theory (Cont.)
3. Concrete operations: from 7-11 years of age
The concept of conservation, or the idea that a mass can be changed in size, shape, volume, or length without losing or adding to the original mass, is not understood.
The child is able to classify things.
Piaget calls it concrete operational period, because children in this age are able to deal with concrete facts logically, but can not think abstractly.
Now if you give them the little problem of the short broad glass and tall thin glass, they realize immediately that the quantity of the water does not change.
Because children in concrete operation cannot reason abstractly they can solve visual problems better than verbal problems.
Example: I have three trees in the garden, A, B, & C. A is taller than C but smaller than B. Which tree is the tallest?
4. Formal Operational Period (11 to 15/16 years)
Students become able to think abstractly
as well as logically.
They think about their future and parts they will
play in society as adults.
They also think about other people s thinking
often critically.
Consider possibilities, hypotheses.
Can use deductive (general to specific) and
inductive (specific to general) reasoning.


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