انت هنا الان : شبكة جامعة بابل > موقع الكلية > نظام التعليم الالكتروني > مشاهدة المحاضرة

Learning Objectives:

الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التخصصات التمريضية     المرحلة 3
أستاذ المادة عبد المهدي عبد الرضا حسن الشحماني       03/11/2017 05:37:54


Learning Objectives:
Mastery of content in this chapter will enable the student to:
1. Identify the importance of growth and development.
2. Describe and differentiate between growth and development.
3. Recognize and discuss the factors that influencing growth and development.
4. Describe the stages of development.
Growth and Development
Definitions:
Growth:
It is the increase in physical size of the
whole body or any of the parts of the body.
Because of cell division and synthesis of
proteins. It causes a quantitative change in
the child s body.
Growth can be measured accurately in
inches, centimeters, pounds or kilograms.

Development:
It refers to progressive increase in skills and capacity of functions.
It causes a qualitative change in the child’ functioning.
Development can be measured but its measurements are not so accurate as growth as it is measured through observation.
Maturation:
Literally, it means ripen.
It is described as ageing or an increase in child s competence and adaptability.
It is usually used to describe qualitative changes in a structure, i.e., the structure begins to function or to function at a higher level depending on the child s heredity.

Principles of growth and development:
1. Growth and development are continuous processes.
2. Each child has his own rate of growth and development.
3. Both growth and development are synchronous. Different body parts and developmental areas develop at different rates. Each body part has its own time to grow.
4. All areas of growth and development are interrelated (physical, psychosocial, cognitive and motor) to meet the child’s basic physiological needs.
5. Children’s behavior is directed towards competency.
6. Growth and development progress from midline towards periphery.
7. Growth and development occur in an orderly sequence.
8. The direction of development is Cephalocaudal, i.e. the infant controls his head before he can sit, and crawls before he can walk.
9. General to specific: at the beginning all faces and sounds appear same to him/her, then stars to distinguish mother’s face and sound.
10. Development is relative

Factors affecting growth and development:
1. Hereditary factors: These are responsible for the characteristics of :
• certain anomalies,
• individual pattern of growth,
• some diseases
• certain types of short stature.
2. Congenital defects: These may be due to heredity or abnormal environment during embryonic life.
3. Endocrine factors: These can produce normal variations and cause growth variation.
4. *Environmental factors: Environmental factors such as
• the mother s nutritional status,
• exposure to infectious diseases and pathological conditions
• the socioeconomic conditions of the family affect the health of the embryo, infant and child.
5. *Nutritional factors: Growth of the baby depends on adequate consumption and proper utilization of suitable types of food. Specific deficiencies cause alterations in growth and development.
6. *Activities: Normal growth and development depend on normal activities. A bedridden child would not grow as much as an active one.
7. *Illness and injuries: During birth, may cause a permanent damage to vital organs.
Types of Growth:
1. Physical growth such as, weight, height, head and chest circumferences.
2. Physiological growth such as, vital signs, and senses; (touch, hearing, smell, vision, and taste).
Types of Development:
1. Cognitive development (intellectual development e.g. reasoning, mental thinking…etc)
2. Emotional development e.g. loves, fear …etc.
3. Social development e.g. self concept, friendship, and development of senses such as sense of trust…etc.
Stages of Growth and Development
1. Prenatal period : From conception to birth:
I. Germinal period:1st two weeks of gestation (Zygote)
II. Embryonic period: 2 – 8 weeks (Embryo)
III. Fetal period: 8weeks – birth (Fetus)
2. Infancy: Birth to 12 months
I. Neonate : Birth to 1 month
II. Infancy: 1 month to 12 months
3. Early Childhood: 1to 6 years
I. Toddler: 1-3 years
II. Preschool: 3-6 years
4. Middle Childhood: 6 to 11 0r 12 years
School age:
6 to 12 years
5. Later Childhood: 11 to 19
I. Prepubertal: 10 -13 years
II. Adolescence: 13 years to approximately 18 or 19 years
6. Adulthood
I. Young adulthood: from 19- 25 years
II. Adult: from 26 – 40 years
III. Maturity: from 41 years - and above
7. Old age



Embryo
Fetus (12 weeks)
Newborn infant
Infant
Toddler
Preschool
School child
Preadolescent (Prepubertal)
Adolescent
Young adult
Mature (Older adult)
Old aged
HAVE A NICE DAY


المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .