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Psychosexual Theories

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أستاذ المادة عبد المهدي عبد الرضا حسن الشحماني       28/03/2017 03:16:02


Psychosexual Theories
Freud s Motivational theory of Personality
Sigmund Freud was born May 6, 1856
Died September 23, 1939
Freud s Motivational theory of Personality
Sigmund Freud introduced a number of concepts about development that are still recognized today.
Freud’s concepts about development
The unconscious mind: is the mental life of a person of which the person is unaware. This concept of the unconscious is one of Freud s major contributions to the field of psychiatry.
Defense mechanisms / adaptive mechanisms: as they are more commonly called today, are the result of conflicts between inner impulses and the anxiety that attendsيلازم,يصاحب these conflicts. It is a process that distortsيشوه, يحرف reality to prevent the individual from being overwhelmedيقهر by anxiety
Cont. Freud’s concepts about development.
*The Id: Is the source of instinctive and unconscious urges, and also the source of all pleasure and gratification.

* The ego: الأنا is formed by the person to make effective contact with social and physical needs. Through the ego, the id impulses are satisfied. The ego seeks pleasure and avoids pain in rational way that society approves.
*The Superego:الأنا العليا This is conscience of the personality, a control on the id. The superego reminds the person of what would be ideal behaviors and what behaviors are totally unacceptable. The superego is the source of feeling of guilt, shame, and inhibition.
Personality development
Freud proposed that the development of personality advanced through several psychosexual stages.

In each of these stages, the libidinal energy found a particular focus if the individual progressed through each stage without serious difficulties.
Disturbances in the form of frustrationتثبيط or excessive gratification اشباع,رضىduring one of the stages could lead to fixation at that stage, meaning that some of the libidinal energy of the adult would have to be used to satisfy responding appropriately to that stage rather than responding appropriate for an adult.
Freud Psychosexual Stages of Development
The Oral Stage (0 – 12 months)
The Anal Stage (1 – 3 years)
The Phallicقضيب Stage (3 – 6 years)
The period of Latency ;كامن(6 – 12 years)
The Adolescence and adulthood {Genital Stage} (12+ years)
The Oral Stage (0 – 12 month)
*The first psychosexual stage. This stage lasts from birth to the first year of life. Libidinal energy centers on oral activities, particularly feeding and weaning.
Mouth is the center of pleasure.
*Fixationjv;تركيزالرغبة الجنسيه على شئ ما at this stage means that a high level of oral activity may be shown by the adult. E.g. Fixation at the oral stage may be represented by activities such as excessive gum-chewing, fingernail butting, talking, or eating.
These behaviors are thought to occur because the person either has been satisfied too much during the oral stage or because the person has not had enough satisfaction during the stage.
The Anal Stage (1 – 3 years)
The anal شرجstage is the second psychosexual stage. Anus and rectum are the centers of pleasure. This stage occurs during toilet training.
* Fixation at the anal stage may result in adult difficulties with the given obsessive compulsive personality traits, such as obstinacyعناد الشفاء, stinginess, cruelty, temper and conflicts between neatness and sloppiness.
The Phallic Stage (3 – 6 years)
In this stage, the source of libidinal pleasure is in the genitalia. Characteristic behavior at this time include exploration of genitals, infantile masturbation, and interest in the anatomical differences between the sexes.
Inability to achieve adult sexuality and responsiveness may result from fixation at this stage.
Freud believed this was the period when what he called the Oedipal complex (for boys) and the Electra complex (for girls) had to be resolved.
Freud proposed that a child has sexual desires for the parent of the opposite sex and feels competition with the parent of the same sex. However, fear of punishment causes the child to identify with the parent of the same sex and to adopt similar behaviors.
According to Freud, failure to complete this identification process may result in incomplete gender identity, difficulties in authority situation, or homosexuality
The period of Latency (6 – 12 years)
At the end of the phallic stage about the age of 5 or 6 years, Freud believed the child entered a latency stage.
Which means the psychosexual concerns no longer existed.
During this period, libidinal energies are reduced dramatically
The Adolescence and adulthood {Genital Stage} (12 years >
With the onset of puberty, a person goes into the final stage of development. At this point, the libidinal energies are rearoused, and the individual attempts to achieve adult sexuality.
If there have been difficulties at earlier stage, the giving and receiving of adult mature love may be difficult or impossible to achieve.
Example:
Suppose يتصور,يعتقدa person experiences considerable frustration during the period of toilet training. It is possible that the residual الفضاله, المتبقيfixation may cause the person to be stingy, stubborn, or extremely fussy. All such characteristics might prevail against the mature expression of giving and receiving love.
Ego Defense Mechanisms
Freud proposed that actions or events that insult اهانة,تحقيرthe superego and damage to one s self-image result in anxiety in the ego.
To keep this damage and anxiety to a minimum, a person develops and uses ego defense mechanisms as a way of protecting the self.
Repression:القمع
It is the first step in all defense mechanisms and the most prevalent.
Sustained repression كبت,قمعrequires psychic energy (anxiety) This may result in an abnormal personality pattern
Rationalizationتبرير
The most common defense mechanisms after regression
A person who acts for a reason that is considered unacceptable may account for that action by claiming ادعاء, مطالبةit was done for some other acceptable reason
Projectionالإسقاط
People who attribute their unacceptable feelings to others
Projection may allow the person to express sentiments or beliefs that would produce anxiety if they were accepted as his or her own
For example, if you have a strong dislike for someone, you might instead believe that he or she does not like you
Displacementالازاحه
Displacement occurs when aggressive reactions are directed toward some
‘’ innocent stimulus rather then the one producing anger’’ express our anger towards a person or object that poses no threat (such as our spouse, children or pets).
This is done because direct attack upon the hostility producing stimulus is viewed as too stressful, and yet relief is desired
Regression تراجع
A person who adopts an attitude that is appropriate to a younger age level may be showing regression
Adopting a more childlike attitude may allow the person to avoid responsibilities and not lose face

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs
Abraham Maslow
was born in April 1st.1908 and died on June 8th.1970
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs
Cont. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs
Understanding this hierarchy of needs helps to develop awareness that everybody has many basic requirements which are essential for survival, health and well-being, and that a person’s behavior is oriented toward meeting those needs.
Level 1: Physical survival – food, water, air, sleep, shelter. These are things we cannot live without.
Cont. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs
Level 2: Safety and security – feeling physically and psychologically safe. We feel fear when these needs aren’t met. When people are fearful, they work on getting rid of the fear rather than on the task at hand
Cont. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs
Level 3: Emotional and social – having relationships with others such as family, friends and coworkers. These include needs for love, acceptance, belonging and intimacy. When these needs aren’t met, people experience loneliness, anxiety and depression.
Cont. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs
Level 4: Achievement and success – being productive, achieving and accomplishing things that give us feelings of self-esteem and self-worth. We need to feel that we’re making a contribution, doing something that matters.
Cont. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs
Level 5: Self-Actualization – on reaching Level 4 we are then in need of self-actualization, i.e. a need to fulfill our potential comes into focus. We are motivated to make the most of our unique talents and abilities and be the best that we can be. Some characteristics of self actualization are feelings of wholeness, happiness and a sensitive awareness of living.


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