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Understanding Interpersonal Relationships

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أستاذ المادة عبد المهدي عبد الرضا حسن الشحماني       13/12/2016 06:02:36
Understanding Interpersonal Relationships
What makes communication “Interpersonal”?
Context:
all two-person (dyadic) interaction is interpersonal
Quality not Quantity is what counts
Qualitative:
When two people treat each other as unique individuals regardless of the context
Interpersonal relationship:
When two people meet one another’s social needs
Content vs. Relational Messages
Every verbal msg. contains two kinds of msgs.
Content:
Focuses on a subject being discussed
Clean your room, Put gas in the car, Pay the rent $
Relational:
Shows how the parties feel about each other
Deal with 1 or more social needs
Inclusion
Control
Affection
Respect
Relational Messages cont’d.
Relational messages are often conveyed nonverbally
Remember than nonverbal communication can be difficult to interpret (ambiguous)
Use Perception checking to clarify meaning
Metacommunication
Metacommunication:
Communication about communication
Discussing our relationship is metacommunication
Uses for metacommunication
It is essential in successful relationships
Method of solving conflicts constructively
Shift discussion from content to relational questions
Relational issues are usually where problems are found
It sounds like you’re angry with me
I appreciate your honesty with me
Intimacy
Intimacy usually refers to closeness.
Can appear on different levels:
Physical: athletic events, emergencies
Intellectual: exchange of important ideas
Emotional: exchange of important feelings
Shared activities
Intimacy and Gender
Women value emotional expression as a path to intimacy. Men value doing things, such as activities, other than talking.
Intimacy and Culture
Differences in culture can lead to problems in intimacy in terms of both the need for it and how to reach it. Different disclosure rates can impact this variable.
Relational Development
Knapp’s Developmental Model: A ten stage model, separated into coming together and coming apart sections, that explains relational development.
Ten Stages of Relational Development
Initiating: Making contact with another person
Experimenting: emergence of “small-talk”
Intensifying: expression of feelings; spending more time together
Integrating: Identity as one social unit is created
Bonding: symbolic public gestures to show commitment
Ten Stages of Relational Development, cont.
6. Differentiating: re-establish individual identity
7. Circumscribing: shrinking interest and commitment
8. Stagnation: boredom
9. Avoiding: when stagnation becomes unpleasant
10. Termination: ending
Characteristics of Relational Development & Maintenance
Relationships are constantly changing
Movement is always to a new place
Self-Disclosure
Definition: deliberately revealing information about oneself that is signification and that would not normally be known to others
Deliberate: purposeful
Significant: revealing important information
Not known to others
Self-disclosure
Reciprocation and development of a relationship are the most common reasons for self-disclosure
Social Penetration Model
(Altman & Taylor)
Concerned with two factors that determine the intimacy of interpersonal relationships
Breadth: range of subjects being discussed
Depth: shift from nonrevealing messages to more personal ones
Johari Window
(Luft & Ingham)
Four components that make up what one knows about him/herself and what others know about him or her
Open: both you and the other are aware of
Blind: you are unaware, but the other is not
Hidden: you are aware, but aren’t willing to share with others
Unknown: both you and the other are not unaware
Characteristics of Effective
Self-disclosure
Influenced by culture
Usually occurs in dyads
Usually symmetrical
Occurs incrementally


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