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Premature infant

الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التخصصات التمريضية     المرحلة 3
أستاذ المادة عبد المهدي عبد الرضا حسن الشحماني       09/12/2016 11:47:59
Premature infant
Preterm is responsible for more deaths during the first year of life.
- Premature infants are those delivered before 37 wks. old, low birth weight infants are those who weight 2500 gm or less at birth owing to either a shortened gestational period or a less than expected growth rate or both.
Premature and low birth weight usually occur together both carrying a high rate of morbidity and mortality.
- Post-mature infants: those born after a prolonged gestation show attainments in growth and development.
Approximately 10% of all live births are premature, the standard of prematurity should be the number of days of gestation but this standard correlates with weight, length and activity of newborn because weight is after indicated of prematurity and physiologic immaturity premature or low birth weight infant consider being one who weights 2500 gm or less at birth.

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Causes of premature infant اسباب الطفل الخديج
Causes are unknown, but may be:
(1) Low socioeconomic groups.
(2) Inadequate parental care.
(3) Multiple birth and frequent cause of prematurity.
(4) Relation between use of contraceptive ad multiple birth.
(5) Toxemia of pregnancy.
(6) Ante partum hemorrhage.
(7) Premature rupture of membrance.
(8) Cardiac disease.
(9) Hypertension.
(10) Over weight D.M.
(11) Sever sensitization to Rh bleed factors, heavy smoking and drink dray.
(12) < 17 years .
(13) > 35 years.
(14) Abnormality of pelvis.
(15) Injury to mother or fetus.
(16) Malnutrition mother.
Characteristics of premature infant صفات الطفل الخديج
(1) Small and limp: thin skin wrinkled and red excessive of lanugo, little or no vernio caseosa, head is large with prominent eyes soft and receding chine less firm thorax, protrude abdomen, small muscles, soft deficient subcutaneous tissue. Engorgement of the breast is absent. Absent of sucking, swallowing and gag reflexes.
(2) Physiological handicaps:
a. Poor control of baby temp.
b. Difficult respiration.
c. Inability to handle infectious tendency to hemorrhage anemia.
d. Tending to Ca+ deficiency, rickets, disturbance of nutrition, and
e. Impairment of renal function.

Prevention لمنع الخلل الفسيولوجي للطفل المعوق
(1) Adequate prenatal care.
(2) Maternal and child health program.
Cause of dyspnea اساب صعوبة التنفس
Immature lungs and incomplete development of alveoli weakness of thoracic cage of respiratory muscles.
• Cyanosis: in adequate oxygenation of arterial blood due to increase obstruction of respiratory tract and abdominal distention.
• Apnea:
o May result from excessive analgesic or anesthesia.
o Infection due to poor development globulin synthesis, antibody formation and cellular defect.
Tendency to hemorrhage anemia الميل الى فقر الدم
(1) Blood is fragile.
(2) Lack normal elasticity and plasma.
(3) Hypo prothrombinemic.
(4) Lacks vit. K.
(5) Lacks iron and other essential hemotogenous factors which fetus receives during last month of gestation.
Rickets الكساح
(1) Lack of calcium.
(2) Phosphorus.
(3) Vit. D.
(4) Lacks the ability to absorb fat-soluble vitamins and impairment of kidney, causes difficulty in concentration of urine has unstable acid-base and electrolyte balance.
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Care of premature infant include العناية بالطفل الخديج تتضمن
(1) Warmth.
(2) Invitation of respiration.
(3) O2 30-40%.
(4) Medications epinephrine I.M cardiovascular stimulating vit. K. to reduce tendency of bleeding 1.0 mg.
Care in nursing incubator العناية بالطفل في الحاظنة
Selection of incubator اختيار الحاظنة
It should be prepared before baby.
(1) Easy maintenance of heat and humidity.
(2) Easy administration of O2.
(3) Transparent top for easy visibility.
(4) Safety alarms to indicate over heating of lack of circulating air.

Charting O2 for infants:
(1) Physician order and methods.
(2) Duration.
(3) O2 concentration.
(4) Infant s response to concentrate and duration.
(5) Nutrition: feeding with medicine dropper.

Disease of premature infant الامراض التي تصيب الطفل الخديج
(1) Retrolental fibroplasias (chief cause of neonatal blindness due to PO2 of premature infant bleed prevent by O2 therapy.
(2) Anoxia less O2.
(3) Atelactasis (lung collapsed) treatment by bronchoscopy.
(4) Idiopathic respiratory distress: is found in about 56% of premature infants who distinguished a few days after birth to arterial circulation by way of ducts and the foramen oval with passing through lungs.
(5) Vomiting due to over feeding.
(6) Diarrhea (4-5)/day.
(7) Dehydration.
(8) Jaundice: physiological jaundice due to bilirubinemia in early postnatal period photo therapy or use of lumps.


المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .