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Fetal Birth Injuries

الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التخصصات التمريضية     المرحلة 3
أستاذ المادة عبد المهدي عبد الرضا حسن الشحماني       09/12/2016 11:45:12
Fetal Birth Injuries
Definition
The term birth injury is used to denote:
avoidable and unavoidable
mechanical, hypoxic and ischemic injury
affecting the infant
during
labor and delivery.
Definition
Birth injuries may result from :
Inappropriate or deficient medical skill or attention.
They may occur, despite skilled and competent obstetric care.
Incidence
Has been estimated at 2-7/1,000 live births. Predisposing factors:
Macrosomia,
Prematurity,
Cephalopelvic disproportion,
Dystocia,
Prolonged labor, and
Breech presentation.
Incidence, Importance
5-8/100,000 infants die of birth trauma, and
25/100,000 die of anoxic injuries;
Such injuries represent 2-3% of infant deaths.
Cranial Injuries
Erythema, abrasions, ecchymoses,
Of facial or scalp soft tissues may be seen after forceps or vacuum-assisted deliveries.
Their location depends on the area of application of the forceps.
Subconjunctival ,retinal hemorrhages and petechiae of the skin of the head and neck
All are common.
All are probably secondary to a sudden increase in intrathoracic pressure during passage of the chest through the birth canal.
Parents should be assured that they are temporary and the result of normal hazards of delivery.
Molding
Molding of the head and overriding of the parietal bones are frequently associated with caput succedaneum and become more evident after the caput has receded but disappear during the first weeks of life.
Rarely, a hemorrhagic caput may result in shock and require blood transfusion.
Caput succedaneum
Diffuse, sometimes ecchymotic, edematous swelling of the soft tissues of the scalp involving the portion presenting during vertex delivery.
It may extend across the midline and across suture lines.
The edema disappears within the first few days of life.
Caput succedaneum
Analogous swelling, discoloration, and distortion of the face are seen in face presentations.
No specific treatment is needed, but if there are extensive ecchymoses, phototherapy for hyperbilirubinemia may be indicated.
Cephalhaematoma
It is a subperiosteal haematoma most commonly lies over one parietal bone.
It may result from difficult vacuum or forceps extraction .
Cephalhaematoma
Management:
- It usually resolves spontaneously.
- Vitamin K 1 mg IM is given.


Cephalohematoma
Is a subperiosteal hemorrhage, so it is always limited to the surface of one cranial bone.
There is no discoloration of the overlying scalp, and swelling is usually not visible until several hours after birth, because subperiosteal bleeding is a slow process.
An underlying skull fracture, usually linear and not depressed, is occasionally associated with cephalohematoma.
Cephalohematoma

Most cephalohematomas are resorbed within 2 wk-3 mo, depending on their size.
They may begin to calcify by the end of the 2nd wk.
Cephalohematoma
A sensation of central depression suggesting( but not indicative )of an underlying fracture or bony defect is
Cephalohematomas
require no treatment, although phototherapy may be necessary to ameliorate hyperbilirubinemia.
Cephalohematoma
Incision and drainage are contraindicated because of the risk of introducing infection in a benign condition.
A massive cephalohematoma may rarely result in blood loss severe enough to require transfusion.
It may also be associated with a skull fracture, coagulopathy, and intracranial hemorrhage.
Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis

Intracranial Haemorrhage:
Causes:
Sudden compression and decompression of the head as in breech and precipitate labour.
Marked compression by forceps or in cephalopelvic disproportion.
Fracture skull.
Intracranial Haemorrhage:
Predisposing factors:
Prematurity due to physiological hypoprothrombinaemia, fragile blood vessels and liability to trauma.
Asphyxia due to anoxia of the vascular wall .
Blood diseases.
Intracranial Haemorrhage Sites:
Subdural : results from damage to the superficial veins where the vein of Galen and inferior sagittal sinus combine to form the straight sinus.
Subarachnoid: The vein of Galen is damaged due to tear in the dura at the junction of the falx cerebri and tentorium cerebelli.
Intraventricular :into the brain ventricles.
Intracerebral : into the brain tissues .
In (1) and (2) it is usually due to birth trauma,
in (3) and (4) the foetus is usually a premature exposed to hypoxia.
Intracranial Haemorrhage:
Clinical picture:
1- Altered consciousness.
2- Flaccidity.
3- Breathing is absent, irregular and periodic or gasping.
4- Eyes: no movement, pupils may be fixed and dilated.
5- Opisthotonus, rigidity, twitches and convulsions.
6- Vomiting .
7- High pitched cry.
8- Anterior fontanelle is tense and bulging.
9- Lumbar puncture reveals bloody C.S.F.
Intracranial Haemorrhage
Investigations:
Ultrasound is of value.
CT scan is the most reliable.
MRI
Intracranial Haemorrhage:
Prophylaxis:
Vitamin K: 10 mg IM to the mother in late pregnancy or early in labour.
Episiotomy: especially in prematures and breech delivery.
Forceps delivery: carried out by an experienced obstetrician respecting the instructions for its use.
Intracranial Haemorrhage Treatment

Supportive
ETIOLOGY AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
Intracranial hemorrhage may result from:
Birth trauma or
Asphyxia and, rarely, from a
Primary hemorrhagic disturbance or
Congenital vascular anomaly.
ETIOLOGY AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
Intracranial hemorrhages often involve the ventricles
( intraventricular hemorrhage [IVH]) of premature infants delivered spontaneously without apparent trauma.
CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS
The incidence of IVH increases with decreasing birthweight:
60-70% of 500- to 750-g infants and
10-20% of 1,000- to 1,500-g infants.
IVH is rarely present at birth; however,
80-90% of cases occur between birth and the 3rd day .
50% occur on the 1st day.
20% to 40% of cases progress during the 1st wk of life.
Delayed hemorrhage may occur in 10-15% of patients after the 1st wk of life.
CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS
The most common symptoms are:
Diminished or absent Moro reflex.
Poor muscle tone.
Lethargy.
Apnea.
Somnolence.
CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS
Periods of apnea,
Pallor, or cyanosis;
Failure to suck well;
Abnormal eye signs;
A high-pitched cry;
Muscular twitches, convulsions, decreased muscle tone, or paralyses;
Metabolic acidosis; shock, and a
Decreased hematocrit or its failure to increase after transfusion may be the first indications.
The fontanel may be tense and bulging.
DIAGNOSIS
Intracranial hemorrhage is diagnosed on the basis of the:,
Transfontanel cranial ultrasonography or
Computed tomography (CT), and
Peripheral Nerve Injuries
Brachial Plexus Palsy:
It is due to over traction on
the neck as in:
Shoulder dystocia.
After-coming head in breech delivery.
Brachial Plexus Palsy:
Erb s palsy:
It is the common, due to injury to C5 and C6 roots.
The upper limb drops beside the trunk, internally rotated with flexed wrist
(policeman’s or waiter’s tip hand).
Brachial Plexus Palsy:
(2) Klumpke’s palsy:
It is less common,
Due to injury to C7 and C8 and 1st thoracic roots.
- It leads to paralysis of the muscles of the hand and weakness of the wrist and fingers flexors.
Brachial Plexus Palsy:
Treatment
Support to prevent stretching of the paralyzed muscles.
Physiotherapy: massage, exercise and faradic stimulation.

BRACHIAL PALSY
Injury to the brachial plexus may cause paralysis of the upper arm with or without paralysis of the forearm or hand or, more commonly, paralysis of the entire arm.
Approximately 45% are associated with shoulder dystocia.
BRACHIAL PALSY
These injuries occur in :
Macrosomic infants and when lateral traction is exerted on the head and neck during delivery of the shoulder in a vertex presentation,
When the arms are extended over the head in a breech presentation, or
When excessive traction is placed on the shoulders.
In Erb-Duchenne paralysis
The injury is limited to the 5th and 6th cervical nerves.
The characteristic position consists of:
( Adduction and internal rotation of the arm with pronation of the forearm).
Moro reflex is absent on the affected side

In Erb-Duchenne paralysis
There may be some sensory impairment on the outer aspect of the arm.
The power in the forearm and the hand grasp are preserved unless the lower part of the plexus is also injured;
(the presence of the hand grasp is a favorable prognostic sign).
Klumpke s paralysis
Is a rarer form of brachial palsy;
Injury to the 7th and 8th cervical nerves and the 1st thoracic nerve produces a paralyzed hand,
(Horner syndrome)
If the sympathetic fibers of the 1st thoracic root are also injured : paralyzed hand and ipsilateral ptosis and miosis.
The prognosis
Depends on whether the nerve was merely injured or was lacerated.
If the paralysis was due to edema and hemorrhage about the nerve fibers, function should return within a few months;
If due to laceration, permanent damage may result.
Treatment
If the paralysis persists without improvement for 3-6 months: neuroplasty, neurolysis, end-to-end anastomosis, or nerve grafting
offers hope for partial recovery.
PHRENIC NERVE PARALYSIS
Phrenic nerve injury (3rd, 4th, 5th cervical nerves) with diaphragmatic paralysis must be considered when cyanosis and irregular and labored respirations develop.
Such injuries, usually unilateral, are associated with ipsilateral upper brachial palsy.
PHRENIC NERVE PARALYSIS
The diagnosis
is established by ultrasonography or fluoroscopic examination, which reveals elevation of the diaphragm on the paralyzed side
There is no specific treatment:
infants should be placed on the involved side and given oxygen if necessary.
PHRENIC NERVE PARALYSIS
Recovery usually occurs spontaneously by 1-3 months; rarely, surgical plication of the diaphragm may be indicated.
CLAVICLE
This bone is fractured during labor and delivery
more frequently than any other bone;
It is particularly vulnerable when there is:
Difficulty in delivery of the shoulder in vertex presentations and of
The extended arms in breech deliveries.

CLAVICLE
The infant characteristically does not move the arm freely on the affected side;
Crepitus and bony irregularity may be palpated, and
Discoloration is occasionally visible over the fracture site.
CLAVICLE
Treatment, consists of immobilization of the arm and shoulder on the affected side.
A remarkable degree of callus develops at the site within a week and may be the first evidence of the fracture.
The prognosis is excellent.
Other injuries
Liver and spleen laceration
Fracture of humerous and femur bones
Facial nerve injury
Phrenic nerve injury

Case presentation
4400 gm baby boy was delivered to diabetic mother at 41 week gestation. forceps were use and traction at neck after head delivery. Baby came out depressed and needed resusitation. Then was taken to NICU for further care.
Questions????
What are component of neonatal resuscitation?
What risks of birth injury in this infants?
List area need to be examined carefully and the expected findings?
What other area to examine for the maternal diabetes
Plan a management FOR potential complication in this patient
Answers
Erythema, abrasions, ecchymoses, Head trauma, Fractures, Organ laceration
Pripheral nerve injury
Examin for head, clavicle, humerous, lungs for phrenic nerve paralysis,…
Resuscitation includes evaluation of ABC (respiration and heart rate)
Metabolic and congenital complication of diabetes
Plan management of above issues


المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .