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Hospital Infection Control - Practical- Hand washing & PPE

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الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم كلية ذات القسم الواحد     المرحلة 4
أستاذ المادة عمار عباس شعلان الحميري       23/10/2017 11:33:43
hand hygiene: why, how & when?
why?
• thousands of people die every day
around the world from infections
acquired while receiving health care.
• hands are the main pathways of
germ transmission during health care.
• hand hygiene is therefore the most
important measure to avoid the
transmission of harmful germs
and prevent health care-associated
infections.
• this brochure explains how and
when to practice hand hygiene.
who?
• any health-care worker, caregiver or
person involved in direct or indirect
patient care needs to be concerned
about hand hygiene and should be
able to perform it correctly and at
the right time.
how?
• clean your hands by rubbing them
with an alcohol-based formulation,
as the preferred mean for routine
hygienic hand antisepsis if hands
are not visibly soiled. it is faster,
more effective, and better tolerated
by your hands than washing with
soap and water.
• wash your hands with soap and water
when hands are visibly dirty or visibly
soiled with blood or other body fluids
or after using the toilet.
• if exposure to potential spore-forming
pathogens is strongly suspected
or proven, including outbreaks of
clostridium difficile, hand washing with
soap and water is the preferred means.
page 1 of 7
who acknowledges the hôpitaux universitaires de genève (hug), in particular the members
of the infection control programme, for their active participation in developing this material.
all reasonable precautions have been taken by the world health organization to verify the
information contained in this document.
however, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either
expressed or implied. the responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the
revised august 2009 reader. in no event shall the world health organization be liable for damages arising from its use.
hand hygiene: why, how & when?
who acknowledges the hôpitaux universitaires de genève (hug), in particular the members
of the infection control programme, for their active participation in developing this material.
all reasonable precautions have been taken by the world health organization to verify the
information contained in this document.
however, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either
expressed or implied. the responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the
reader. in no event shall the world health organization be liable for damages arising from its use.
page 2 of 7
rub hands for hand hygiene! wash hands when visibly soiled
apply a palmful of the product in a cupped hand, covering all surfaces rub hands palm to palm
right palm over left dorsum with
interlaced fingers and vice versa
palm to palm with fingers interlaced backs of fingers to opposing palms
with fingers interlocked
rotational rubbing of left thumb
clasped in right palm and vice versa
rotational rubbing, backwards and
forwards with clasped fingers of right
hand in left palm and vice versa
once dry, your hands are safe.
duration of the entire procedure: 20-30 seconds
1a 1b 2
3 4 5
6 7 8
how to handrub?
hand hygiene: why, how & when?
who acknowledges the hôpitaux universitaires de genève (hug), in particular the members
of the infection control programme, for their active participation in developing this material.
all reasonable precautions have been taken by the world health organization to verify the
information contained in this document.
however, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either
expressed or implied. the responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the
reader. in no event shall the world health organization be liable for damages arising from its use.
hand care
• take care of your hands by regularly using a protective
hand cream or lotion, at least daily.
• do not routinely wash hands with soap and water immediately
before or after using an alcohol-based handrub.
• do not use hot water to rinse your hands.
• after handrubbing or handwashing, let your hands
dry completely before putting on gloves.
please remember
• do not wear artificial fingernails
or extenders when in direct
contact with patients.
• keep natural nails short.
wash hands when visibly soiled! otherwise, use handrub
duration of the entire procedure: 40-60 seconds
0 1 2
3 4 5
6 7 8
9 10 11
apply enough soap to cover rub hands palm to palm
all hand surfaces
wet hands with water
right palm over left dorsum with
interlaced fingers and vice versa
palm to palm with fingers interlaced backs of fingers to opposing palms
with fingers interlocked
rotational rubbing of left thumb
clasped in right palm and vice versa
rotational rubbing, backwards and
forwards with clasped fingers of right
hand in left palm and vice versa
rinse hands with water
dry hands thoroughly use towel to turn off faucet your hands are now safe.
with a single use towel
how to handwash?
page 3 of 7
hand hygiene: why, how & when?
who acknowledges the hôpitaux universitaires de genève (hug), in particular the members
of the infection control programme, for their active participation in developing this material.
all reasonable precautions have been taken by the world health organization to verify the
information contained in this document.
however, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either
expressed or implied. the responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the
reader. in no event shall the world health organization be liable for damages arising from its use.
when?
your 5 moments
for hand hygiene*
page 4 of 7
3 risk
fluid exposure
after body
1before
touching
a patient
critical site with
infectious risk
for the patient
critical site
with body fluid
exposure risk
4after
touching
a patient
5after
touching patient
surroundings
2 before
clean/aseptic
procedure
*note: hand hygiene must be performed in all indications
described regardless of whether gloves are used or not.
hand hygiene: why, how & when?
who acknowledges the hôpitaux universitaires de genève (hug), in particular the members
of the infection control programme, for their active participation in developing this material.
all reasonable precautions have been taken by the world health organization to verify the
information contained in this document.
however, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either
expressed or implied. the responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the
reader. in no event shall the world health organization be liable for damages arising from its use.
before touching a patient
why? to protect the patient against colonization and, in some cases,
against exogenous infection, by harmful germs carried on your hands
when? clean your hands before touching a patient when
approaching him/her*
situations when moment 1 applies:
a) before shaking hands, before stroking a child’s forehead
b) before assisting a patient in personal care activities:
to move, to take a bath, to eat, to get dressed, etc
c) before delivering care and other non-invasive treatment:
applying oxygen mask, giving a massage
c) before performing a physical non-invasive examination:
taking pulse, blood pressure, chest auscultation, recording ecg
before clean / aseptic procedure
why? to protect the patient against infection with harmful germs,
including his/her own germs, entering his/her body
when? clean your hands immediately before accessing a critical
site with infectious risk for the patient (e.g. a mucous membrane,
non-intact skin, an invasive medical device)*
situations when moment 2 applies:
a) before brushing the patient’s teeth, instilling eye dropings, performing a digital
vaginal or rectal examination, examining mouth, nose, ear with or without
an instrument, inserting a suppository / pessary, suctioning mucous
b) before dressing a wound with or without instrument, applying ointment
on vesicle, making a percutaneous injection / puncture
c) before inserting an invasive medical device (nasal cannula, nasogastric
tube, endotracheal tube, urinary probe, percutaneous catheter, drainage),
disrupting / opening any circuit of an invasive medical device (for food,
medication, draining, suctioning, monitoring purposes)
d) before preparing food, medications, pharmaceutical products,
sterile material
after body fluid exposure risk
why? to protect you from colonization or infection with
patient’s harmful germs and to protect the health-care
environment from germ spread
when? clean your hands as soon as the task involving an
exposure risk to body fluids has ended (and after glove removal)*
situations when moment 3 applies:
a) when the contact with a mucous membrane and with non-intact skin ends
b) after a percutaneous injection or puncture after inserting an invasive
medical device (vascular access, catheter, tube, drain, etc) after
disrupting and opening an invasive circuit
c) after removing an invasive medical device
d) after removing any form of material offering protection
(napkin, dressing, gauze, sanitary towel, etc)
e) after handling a sample containing organic matter, after clearing
excreta and any other body fluid, after cleaning any contaminated
surface and soiled material (soiled bed linen, dentures, instruments,
urinal, bedpan, lavatories, etc)
after touching a patient
why? to protect you from colonization with patient germs
and to protect the health-care environment from germ spread
when? clean your hands when leaving the patient’s side,
after having touched the patient *
situations when moment 4 applies, if they correspond to the
last contact with the patient before leaving him / her:
a) after shaking hands, stroking a child’s forehead
b) after you have assisted the patient in personal care activities:
to move, to bath, to eat, to dress, etc
c) after delivering care and other non-invasive treatment: changing bed
linen as the patient is in, applying oxygen mask, giving a massage
d) after performing a physical non-invasive examination:
taking pulse, blood pressure, chest auscultation, recording ecg
after touching patient surroundings
why? to protect you from colonization with patient germs that may
be present on surfaces / objects in patient surroundings and to protect
the health-care environment against germ spread
when? clean your hands after touching any object or furniture when
living the patient surroundings, without having touched the patient*
this moment 5 applies in the following situations if they correspond
to the last contact with the patient surroundings, without having
touched the patient:
a) after an activity involving physical contact with the patients immediate
environment: changing bed linen with the patient out of the bed,
holding a bed trail, clearing a bedside table
b) after a care activity: adjusting perfusion speed, clearing a monitoring alarm
c) after other contacts with surfaces or inanimate objects (note – ideally
try to avoid these unnecessary activities): leaning against a bed,
leaning against a night table / bedside table
page 5 of 7
*note: hand hygiene must be performed in all indications
described regardless of whether gloves are used or not.
1
2
3
4
5
hand hygiene: why, how & when?
who acknowledges the hôpitaux universitaires de genève (hug), in particular the members
of the infection control programme, for their active participation in developing this material.
all reasonable precautions have been taken by the world health organization to verify the
information contained in this document.
however, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either
expressed or implied. the responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the
reader. in no event shall the world health organization be liable for damages arising from its use.
hand hygiene and medical glove use
• the use of gloves does not replace the need for cleaning
your hands.
• hand hygiene must be performed when appropriate regardless
of the indications for glove use.
• remove gloves to perform hand hygiene, when an indication
occurs while wearing gloves.
• discard gloves after each task and clean your hands –
gloves may carry germs.
• wear gloves only when indicated according to standard and
contact precautions (see examples in the pyramid below) –
otherwise they become a major risk for germ transmission.
the glove pyramid – to aid decision making
on when to wear (and not wear) gloves
gloves must be worn according to standard and contact
precautions. the pyramid details some clinical examples in which
gloves are not indicated, and others in which clean or sterile gloves are
indicated. hand hygiene should be performed when appropriate
regardless of indications for glove use.
page 6 of 7
sterile
gloves
indicated
any surgical procedure
vaginal delivery invasive
radiological procedures
performing vascular access
and procedures (central lines)
preparing total parental nutrition
and chemotherapeutic agents.
examination gloves
indicated in clinical situations
potential for touching blood, body fluids, secretions,
excretions and items visibly soiled by body fluids.
direct patient exposure: contact with blood contact with
mucous membrane and with non-intact skin potential presence of
highly infectious and dangerous organism epidemic or emergency
situations iv insertion and removal drawing blood discontinuation
of venous line pelvic and vaginal examination suctioning non-closed
systems of endotrcheal tubes.
indirect patient exposure: emptying emesis basins handling/cleaning
instruments handling waste cleaning up spills of body fluids.
gloves not indicated (except for contact precautions)
no potential for exposure to blood or body fluids, or contaminated environment
direct patient exposure: taking blood pressure, temperature and pulse performing sc
and im injections bathing and dressing the patient transporting patient caring for eyes and ears
(without secretions) any vascular line manipulation in absence of blood leakage.
indirect patient exposure: using the telephone writing in the patient chart giving oral medications
distributing or collecting patinet dietary trays removing and replacing linen for patient bed placing non-invasive
ventilation equipment and oxygen cannula moving patient furniture.
hand hygiene: why, how & when?
who acknowledges the hôpitaux universitaires de genève (hug), in particular the members
of the infection control programme, for their active participation in developing this material.
all reasonable precautions have been taken by the world health organization to verify the
information contained in this document.
however, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either
expressed or implied. the responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the
reader. in no event shall the world health organization be liable for damages arising from its use.
glossary
alcohol-based formulation an alcohol-containing preparation (liquid, gel or foam) designed for
application to the hands for hygienic hand antisepsis.
body fluids blood excretions like urine, faeces, vomit meconium lochia
secretions like saliva, tears, sperm, colostrum, milk, mucous secretions,
wax, vernix exudates and transudates like lymphatic, pleural fluid
cerebrospinal fluid, ascitis fluid, articular fluid, pus (except sweat)
organic samples like tissues, cells, organ, bone marrow, placenta.
clean / aseptic procedure any care activity that implies a direct or indirect contact with a mucous
membrane, non-intact skin, an invasive medial device. during such a
procedure no germs should be transmitted.
critical site critical sites are associated with risk of infection. they either correspond
to body sites or medical devices that have to be protected against
harmful germs (called critical sites with risk of infection for the patient),
or body sites or medical devices that potentially lead to hand exposure
to body fluids and bloodborne pathogens (called critical sites with body
fluid exposure risk).
hand care actions to prevent skin irritation.
hand hygiene any action of hygienic hand antisepsis in order to reduce transient
microbial flora (generally performed either by handrubbing with an
alcohol-based formulation or handwashing with plain or antimicrobial
soap and water).
indication for hand hygiene moment during health care when hand hygiene must be performed to
prevent harmful germ transmission and/or infection.
invasive medical device any medical device that enters the body either through a body opening
or through a skin or mucous membrane breaking.
page 7 of 7

المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .
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