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CONDITIONS OF THE LOWER RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS

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الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم العلوم الطبية الاساسية     المرحلة 3
أستاذ المادة عبد المهدي عبد الرضا حسن الشحماني       19/12/2017 18:30:00



CONDITIONS OF THE LOWER
RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS
Bronchiolitis
Acute bronchiolitis is a common viral disease of the lower respiratory tract of infants, resulting from inflammatory obstruction at the bronchiolar level.
Age group is: infants < 6 months up to 2 years.
Greater incidence in males.
Common in ‘Winter and spring
Causative agent:
Respiratory syncytial virus RSV, common in infancy and early childhood it affects epithelial cells of respiratory tract they enlarge and lose their cilia, the cells group together forming large multinuclear cells.
Para influenza virus
Influenza virus
Adenovirus
Mycoplasma pneumoniea
Clinical manifestations:
Occur several days after nasopharyngeal infection (5-8 days incubation period)
Respiratory distress, characterized by:
1. Paroxysmal wheezy cough
2. Dyspnea and decreased breath sound
3. Irritability gradually becoming evident
Increased respiratory rate (40-80) causes difficulty to suck & breath at the same time
Fever some times
Cyanosis
Dehydration
Shallow intercostals & subcostal retraction
Diagnosis:
Chest X-ray shows over inflation of the lungs with some consolidation areas may be seen
Pa02 decreases.
Rapid immuno fluorescent antibodies (IFS) or Enzyme-Linked Immunosrbent Assay (ELlSA) to detect the virus
Treatment and Nursing management:
Antibiotics given until confirmation established
Ribavirin antiviral agent for RSV with special precautions given as aerosolized by hood, tent or mask 12-20 hrs for 1-7 days (safe dose)
Respiratory syncytial virus Immune globulin used prophylactically to prevent RSV infection in high risk infants
I. V immunoglobin G provide neutralizing antibodies against sub type A&B strains of RSV, given in epidemic season & monthly for high risk infant s protection

High humidity & 02 relieves arterial hypoxia
Monitoring ABGs & correction of acidosis
Possible ventilator assistance.
Maintain Acid -Base & fluid electrolyte and nutrition balance
N. G tube feeding or I. V for several days
Keep nasal airway patent
Position baby in infant seat inside croupette and provide respiratory assistance
Continuous vital signs monitoring, and observe for respiratory acidosis, dehydration & cardiac failure
Recemic Epinephrine via intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) may relieve bronchospasm
Minimal handling to allow undisturbed sleep & rest
Complications:
Exhaustion & anoxia
Secondary bacterial infection
Pneumothorax
Apnoeic spells
Circulatory collapse
Increased predisposition to Asthma
PNEUMOMIA:
Is a common childhood disease but occurs frequently in infancy & early childhood. It can be a primary disease or complication of URTI
Morphologically pneumonias are recognized as:
1. Lobar pneumonia: all or a large segment of one or more lobes is involved. When both lungs are affected this known as bilateral pneumonia.
2. Bronchopneumonia: Begins in the terminal bronchioles progressing to consolidated patches in near by lobules also called lobular pneumonia
3. Interstitial pneumonia: Inflammatory process is confined within the alveolar walls and the peribronchial and interlobular tissues.
Lobar pneumonia
Bronchopneumonia
Interstitial pneumonia
Causative agents:
viruses
Bacteria
Mycoplasma as in Primary Atypical Pneumonia
and aspiration of foreign substances.
Clinical manifestations:
varies with the:
1. causative agent,
2. age of the child,
3. child s systemic reaction to the infection,
4. the extent of the lesions,
5. the degree of bronchial and bronchiolar obstruction
Clinical manifestations:
Acute cases:
++ fever with toxic appearance
In older children: headache, abdominal pain or chest pain some times with respiratory distress
Meningism
Cough initially dry & hacking
In smaller children: Irritability poor feeding
Sudden fever & seizures
Respiratory distress with air hunger
Tachypnea and circumoral cyanosis
Breathing sound tubular if there is consolidation, as infection resolves coarse crackles & wheezing increase, cough becomes productive & purulent sputum
Diagnosis:
High WBC but it is normal in infants with staphylococcus infection
Positive blood culture
Positive antistreptolysin 0 titer (ASO)
Treatment:
++ fluids
Antipyretics
02 if there is respiratory distress
Hospitalization for young children & for staphylococcal pneumonia & for complicated condition with empayema or pleural effusion
Prognosis:
Good prognosis but with staph pneumonia it is prolonged.
Complications:
Staph pneumonia empayema, and tension pneumothorax which may occur but pleural effusion is common with lobar pneumonia
Acute otitis media and pleural effusion are common with pneumococcal pneumonia
Pleural effusion
Nursing care of pneumonia
It is mainly supportive and symptomatic to meat the needs of each child
Rest and conservation of energy, encourage relief of physical and psychological stress
Disturb as little as possible Increase sleep and rest.
Fluids IV during acute phase then oral fluids given cautiously to avoid aspiration & decrease fatiguing cough.
02 via tent, head box, or nasal catheter depending on the child s tolerance & age.
Position: semi sitting or as the child prefers.
For fever: cool environment & antipyretic drugs.
Temperature & vital signs monitored regularly until maintained at a normal level.
Chest sounds assessed to determine prognosis
If there are ++ secretions & the child is unable to get rid of them, then high humidity & postural drainage & suctioning are needed.
Psychological support to the parents and the child


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