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immunity

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الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم العلوم الطبية الاساسية     المرحلة 2
أستاذ المادة ميس هادي جبر       22/01/2016 12:12:07
L-10/:-Immunity
Immunity is defined as body’s resistance to invasion by microorganisms and damage by foreign substances vertebrate possess a sophisticated immune response that protects them from invading pathogens when a vertebrate is exposed to foreign macromolecules called antigen , the immunologic system produces proteins called antibodies , which react specifically with the antigen responsible for their synthesis the immune response may involve blood . Blood consist of a fluid portion called plasma. die cells in blood that are of immunologic importance are the leukocytes (white blood cells), serum is the fluid portion of blood that remains after blood has clotted. Blood serum that contains the specific antibody is referred to as antiserum. Not only antibodies play a major role in the resistance to invading microorganisms but they are also very important in the identification of both pathogenic microorganisms and a variety of proteins and other antigens.
Serology is the branch of immunology that studies the antigen — antibody reaction in vitro.
There are many types of immunological test -
1-Agglutinationtest.
2- precipitation test
3-complement test.
4-Immunoflorescence test.
5- Enzyme — linked ImmunosorbantAssay( ELISA) test.
6- Neutralization test.
7- haemagglutination test &haemgglutination inhibition test.
8- Gel diffusion test.

1-Agglutination test:-
In this test, the Ag is particulate ( eg, bacteria & red blood cells) and when red cells are used , the reaction is called hearnagglutination or the Ag is an inert particle ( Latex beads ) coated with an Ag.
Ab , because it is divalent or multivalent, cross—links the antigenically multivalent particles and forms a lattice work, and clumping (agglutination) can be seen. the application of agglutination test in clinical medicine
1- In determine a person s ABO blood group for transfusion.
2- To identify bacterial cultures .
3- To detect the presence relative amount of specific Ab in patients serum.
4- widely used for rapid diagnosis of several disease such as: -
a- widal test — typhoid fever ( salmonellosis)
b- Rose bengal — Malta fever ( Brucellosis)
c- VDRL ( veniral Disease References Lab) for syphilis ( Treponemapallidum)
c- ASOT (Anti — streptolysin 0 test).

2- prccipitation : - (p.p.t.)
In this test, the Ag is insoluble , the Abcross — links , Ag molecules in variable proportion, and aggregates (precipitates ) forms.
Application of precipitation Reaction : -
1- Ring test : - ex : typing of streptococci and pneumococci
c- reactive protein test.
2- slide test:- ex. : VDRL ( diagnosis syphilis ) the reaction appears in the form of floccules,
3- tube flocculation test . (ex. : Kahn test for syphilis and also used for standardization- of toxins & toxoids )
3- Complement Fixation Test: -(CFT)
For many decades , CFT remained a main step for syphilis diagnosis , Modern Technology this technique used for detection of Ab against a Varity of viruses , fungi & bacteria.
It used mainly for diagnosis of encephalitis , meningococcal meningitis &histoplasmosis.

4- Immuno fluorescence test: -
Fluorescencent dyes, ex Fluorescein which emits an apple — green and
rhodamine, which emits orange — red higher fluorescent dye can be covalently to antibody molecules and made visible by ultra — violet (UV) light in fluorescence microscope. such labeled antibody can be used to identify antigens , ex. on the surface of bacteria (such as streptococci and treponemes ) , in cells in histologic section, or in other immunofluorescent reaction is direct when known, labeled antibody interacts directly with unknown antigen and indirect when a two — stage process is used.
5- Enzyme — linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA ):-
This method can be used for quantitation of either antigens or antibodies in patient specimens . It is based on covalently linking an enzyme to a known antigen or antibody. ‘reacting the enzyme -linked material with patients specimen, and then assaying for enzyme activity by adding the substrate of the enzyme . the method is nearly as sensitive
as RIA (radioimmuno assay) yet requires no special equipment.
6- Neutralization test: -
These use the ability of antibodies to block the effect of toxins or the infectivity of viruses .they can used in cell culture (eg, inhibition of cytopatic effect and plaque reduction assays) or in host animal ( eg , mouse protection test).

7- Hemoagglutinationtest : -

a- active hemagglutination - many viruses clump red blood ccii from one species or another,
b- hemagg1utinjion inhibition - hemoagglutination can by inhibited by antibody specifically directed against the viruses and can be used to measure the titer of such antibody
c- passive hemagglutination :- Red blood cells also can absorb many antigens and, when mixed with matching antibodies will clump.
widal test
the widal test is a reaction involving the agglutination of typhoid bacilli when they are mixed with serum ( containing typhoid antibodies, the agglutinin) from an individual having typhoid fever.
procedure :-
first period
1- using the wax pencil , label nine clean serology test tubes with proper dilution as
indicated in the figure2, and place the tubes in a test tube rack
2- pipette 0 9 ml of 0 85 % saline in to tube 1 and 0 5 ml in to the other eight tubes
3- Added 0.1 ml of Salmonella antiserum to tube I with 0.1 ml serological pipette.
Mixed by drawing the solution in to the serological pipette and slowly blowing it out
with a pipette.
4- Transfer 0.5 ml with the same pipette to the second tube Mix as before and continue
transferring 0.5 ml aliquots through tube 8. Discard 0.5 ml from tube 8 after mixing.
Tubes 1-8 constitute a dilution series from 1/15 through 1 / 1280 tube 9 is the antigen
control tube and contains 0.5 ml antigen + 0,5 ml saline.
5- Add 0.5 ml of Salmonella o antigen or heated S.typhiculture to each dilution tube (
2-9) . Mix by gently shaking the test tube rack to agitate all tubes.
6- Incubate the tubes in 37C water bath for 1 hour.
7- After the 1 hour period, check tube 9 first for non specific agglutination (
macroscopic floccules), then tubes 1-8 for specific agglutination with a good light
source against a black background.
8- Refrigerate until the next laboratory period

Second period
1- observe the bottom of each tube for agglutination . examine all tubes without shaking and rank them for agglutination tube 9 should show no agglutination and be ranked o. A tube would be given a 4 + ranking if all cells had clumped and settled to the bottom of the tube .the saline control is seen as a compact button, with cloudy supernatant If tube show agglutination one observe a compact mass on the bottom with a clear supernatant. In serology , controls very important, because some bacterial suspensions agglutinate spontaneously. If this occurs the test must be repeated with different cell suspension. 2-the titer of antiserum is an indication of its antibody level .


المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .
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