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History development of microbiology

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الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم العلوم الطبية الاساسية     المرحلة 2
أستاذ المادة ميس هادي جبر       17/01/2016 06:47:41
History development of microbiology
Microbiology has its origin deeply rooted in curiously. At first MOs were thought to be of little practical importance.
Leeuwenhoek (1673) designed and constructed simple microscope, and he made the first accurate descriptions of most major types of single cell MO known today: algae, bacteria, protozoa, and yeasts.
Edward Jenner (1796) discovered the vaccine against cowpox (Vaccinia).
Louis Pasteur (1850) demonstrated the biological functions of MO (fermentation theory) method of sterilization (pasteurization) and development of vaccines against microbial diseases such as anthrax and rabies.
Antiseptic Surgery: when anesthetics were introduced into surgery and obstetrics during the 1840, surgeon performing longer more complex procedures than ever before. Unfortunately, the number of surgical wound infections increased at the same time, often causing the death of patients.
Joseph Lister showed the role of MO in the wound contamination, and developed Lister system which came to be known as Antiseptic Surgery, which includes the heat sterilization of instruments and the application of phenol to wound by means of dressings.
The germ theory of disease
In nineteenth century the concept of contagion the spread of infectious disease performed the proof of the existence of pathogenic agents.
Nursing college, Second stage Microbiology Dr.Nada Khazal K. Hendi
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A direct role of MO as agents of disease was given by Koch in 1876.
Koch postulates:
1. The suspected causative agent must be found in every case of disease.
2. This MO must be isolated from the infected individual and grown in a culture with no other types of MO.
3. When inoculation into normal healthy susceptible animal a pure culture of the agent must be produce the specific disease.
4. The same MO must be isolated from the experimentally infected host.
Chemotherapy
By 1900 the microbial causes of many important human diseases were known. These included cholera, diphtheria, leprosy, and tetanus. Despite the relative success in uncovering the cause of bacterial disease, advances in treatment were disappointing. The modern era of control treatment began with the use of chemicals that would kill or interfere with the growth of the disease agent without damaging the infected individual. This approach, known as chemotherapy was introduced by Paul Ehrlich.
In 1929, Alexander Fleming isolated a mold produced substance that inhibited bacteria but was non toxic to lab animal. He named this antibacterial material Penicillin, which is one type of antibiotics. Up to data, many new approaches and techniques are developing that aid in the isolation, treatment, controlling, and prevention of infectious disease.

المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .
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