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Pharmacotherapeutics

الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم العلوم الطبية الاساسية     المرحلة 3
أستاذ المادة عمار عباس شعلان الحميري       06/12/2015 13:41:13
Pharmacotherapeutics

Pharmacotherapeutics The treatment of pathologic conditions through the use of drugs.
Acute Therapy
Acute therapy often involves more intensive drug treatment and is implemented in the acutely ill (those with rapid onset of illness) or the critically ill.
It is often needed to sustain life or treat disease.
Examples:
The administration of vasopressors to maintain blood pressure and cardiac output after open heart surgery,
the use of volume expanders for a patient who is in shock, and
intensive chemotherapy for a patient with newly diagnosed cancer.
Maintenance Therapy
Maintenance therapy does not eradicate problems the patient may already have but will prevent progression of a disease or condition.
Examples:
Treatment of chronic illnesses such as hypertension.
Use of oral contraceptives for birth control.

Supplemental Therapy
Supplemental (or replacement) therapy supplies the body with a substance needed to maintain normal function.
Examples:
administration of insulin to diabetic patients.
Iron to patients with iron-deficiency anemia.
Palliative Therapy
Palliative therapy focuses on providing patients with relief from the symptoms, pain, and stress of a serious illness.
The goal is to improve quality of life for both the patient and the family.
Examples:
use of high-dose opioid analgesics to relieve pain in the final stages of cancer.
Supportive therapy
Supportive therapy maintains the integrity of body functions while the patient is recovering from illness or trauma.
Examples
Provision of fluids and electrolytes to prevent dehydration in a patient with influenza who is vomiting and has diarrhea.
Administration of fluids, volume expanders, or blood products to a patient who has lost blood during surgery.
Prophylactic Therapy and Empiric Therapy
Prophylactic therapy is drug therapy provided to prevent illness or other undesirable outcome during planned events.
Example: use of preoperative antibiotic therapy for surgical procedures.
Empiric therapy involves drug administration when a certain pathologic condition has an uncertain but high likelihood of occurrence based on the patient’s initial presenting symptoms.
Example : use of antibiotics active against the organism most commonly associated with a specific infection before the results of the culture and sensitivity reports are available.
Monitoring
Evaluation of clinical response of patient to the treatment.
Evaluating the clinical response requires knowledge with both the drug’s intended therapeutic action (beneficial effects) and its unintended possible adverse effects (predictable adverse drug reactions).
Examples:
Observing for the therapeutic effect of reduced blood pressure following administration of antihypertensive drugs.


Drug interaction
Alteration in the pharmacologic or pharmacokinetic activity of a given drug caused by the presence of one or more additional drugs.
Additive effects
Additive effects Drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs with similar actions is equivalent to the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone.
1 + 1 = 2
Synergistic effects
Drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs with similar actions is greater than the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone.
1 + 1 = greater than 2
Antagonistic effects
Drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs is less than the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone.
1 + 1 = less than 2
Incompatibility
The characteristic that causes two parenteral drugs or solutions to undergo a reaction when mixed or given together that results in the chemical deterioration of at least one of the drugs.
Allergic reaction
An immunologic hypersensitivity reaction resulting from the unusual sensitivity of a patient to a particular medication; a type of adverse drug event.
PHARMACOGNOSY
The study of drugs that are obtained from natural plant and animal sources.
Toxicology
Toxicology The study of poisons, including toxic drug effects, and applicable treatments.

COMMON POISONS AND THEIR ANTIDOTES


المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .