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Ethical Models of Doctor-Patient Relationship

الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التخصصات التمريضية     المرحلة 3
أستاذ المادة عبد المهدي عبد الرضا حسن الشحماني       29/04/2019 06:29:29
Ethical Models of Doctor-Patient Relationship
Ethical concerns over doctor-patient relationship
Autonomy and patient choice
Patient right Vs patient interest
Integrity of the medical profession
Shared decision-making in medical intervention



What constitutes a person’s autonomy?
Three aspects of autonomy
Freedom of thought
Freedom of will
Freedom of action
Principles of medical ethics
Respect for patient autonomy
Beneficence
Non-malficence
Justice
Autonomy and patient rights
Which of the following are derived from the value of patient autonomy?
Right to treatment
Right to information
Right to choices
Right to privacy
Right to compliant
Conflicting Values
Paternalism:
The doctor should act in a way that protects or advances the patient’s best interests, even if it is against the patient’s will.
Patient autonomy:
The doctor should help the patient to make real choice, and provide intervention under the constraints of (a) informed consent and (b) confidentiality.


Difficult cases for doctors: some examples
Active and passive euthanasia
Right to refuse treatment
DNS (Do-not-resuscitate) order
Abortion
Experimental/risky interventions



Ethical models at a glance
Paternalistic model
Informative model
Interpretive model
Deliberative model

Paternalistic model
Principle

Assumptions



Sources

Problems


Objection and modification
The doctor should make all the decisions for a patient.

People are not always rational/mature.
Experts know better about the needs of patients.
Qualified doctors have good will.

Hippocratic Oath; Plato.

Are the needs of patients objective? How can we be sure that doctors have good will?

John Stuart Mill’s liberal principle

Informative model
Principle


Assumptions




Problems


The doctor should provide all the relevant information for the patient to make a decision, and provide the selected intervention on this basis.

A fact/value division of labor yields the best medical result.
What is good for a patient depends on what his/her personal values.
Consumerism.

What if the patient is unconscious, incompetent, and making choices totally unacceptable by our ethical standards?
The interpretive model
Principle



Assumptions




Sources

Limitation
The doctor should help the patient to articulate his/her values through interpretation, and provide intervention which is truly wanted.

Patients have unconscious and inconsistent desires.
Their conscious decisions may not reflect their deepest values.

Sigmund Freud; hermeneutics.

All that a doctor can do is to help the patient see his/her own desires/values more clearly, but not to criticize them.

The deliberative model
Principle


Assumptions


Source

Problems
The doctor should help the patient to deliberate well through dialogue and discussion, and so develop values which are objective and truly worthy.

The objectivity of values.
The patient’s good life consists not in the satisfaction of desires, but maturity and rationality.

Aristotelian ethics

Is the model different from the paternalistic model? What is the difference between dialogue and persuasion?
Relating the models to ethical theories
How are they supported by the major ethical theories?
Ethical relativism
Ethical egoism
Utilitarianism
Deontology
Virtue ethics
Discussion
Give an example which indicates the tension between doctors and patients in Hong Kong.
Which ethical model of doctor-patient relationship can give help resolving this tension? And how?
Does your favorite model suggest that we give more rights to patients? Or less?
Suggestions for further reading
Parker, Michael & Dickenson, Donna (2010), The Cambridge Medical Ethics Workbook: Case Studies, Commentaries, and Activities, Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, Chapter 9.

Emanuel, Ezekiel J., & Emanuel, Linda L. (1992), “Four Models of the Physician-Patient Relationship”, Journal of the American Medical Association, vol.267, no.16, pp.2221-2226.


المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .