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Scientific Research in Nursing

الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التخصصات التمريضية     المرحلة 4
أستاذ المادة سلمى كاظم جهاد الابراهيمي       06/10/2018 18:09:54


Scientific Research in Nursing
Nursing research is a systematic approach used to examine phenomena important to nursing and nurses, that clinical practice be based on scientific knowledge.
Research means to search again or examine carefully. It investigate the old knowledge and generate new knowledge. Systematic means carried on in step-by-step procedure, methodical or orderly.
The research process means the series of actions or functions undertaken to carry out research. The word process" used with research has the same meaning as it does when used as the nursing process. It is the way of doing it.
The results of research process:
1. provide a foundation on which practice decisions and behaviors are laid
2. create a strong scientific base for nursing practice and application of results demonstrates profes¬sional accountability to insurers and health care consumers.

The conclusions resulting from this focused chain of examination provide a base upon which to build a practice of care that is centered on tested solutions. It is usually said that they doing a study, and it may refer also to as an investigation or a research project.
Research studies with humans involve two sets of people: those who are doing the research and those who are providing information.
Major types of research
1. In terms of Type of data collection:
a. Quantitative Research: is the traditional scientific method that gathers data objectively in an organized, systematic, controlled manner so that the findings can be generalized to other situations/populations (uses numbers as data)
b. Qualitative Research: is the method based on the assumption that truth is dynamic, gathers subjective data, approach used to describe life experiences and give them meaning. (uses words as data)
2. In terms of use of findings of research:
a. Basic Research: basic or pure , research is a scientific investigation that involves of knowledge for knowledge purpose. It is usually lead or is the basis for applied research.
b. Applied research: is a scientific investigation conducted to answer a clinical question or solve a practice-related problem. Many of the studies that have been conducted in nursing are applied because researchers have chosen to focus on answering immediate clinical questions.

Importance of Research in Nursing
1. The final goal of any professional is to improve the practice of it s members, so that the services provided to it s clients will have the greatest impact.
2. Any profession seeking to enhance its profession image, develop the body of knowledge fundamental to practice.
3. By research nurses become more scientifically accountable, and enable them to make decisions in nursing practice.

Purpose Of Nursing Research:
The general purpose of nursing research is to answer questions or solve problems of relevance to the nursing profession.
The major rational for conducting research is to build a body of knowledge, thereby promoting improvement in patient outcomes. This accomplished by using results of research in the provision of nursing care that is based on scientific data.
As a profession nursing must hold its members accountable for providing safe, cost-effective, and efficient care.


Research can be categorized in terms of it s aims or objectives as:
1. Identification
2. Description
3. Exploration
4. Prediction
5. Control of natural phenomena
Research can also be described in terms of it s utility
1. Basic research: is designed to extend the base of information or knowledge
2. Applied research: focuses on discovering solutions to immediate problems.

Theory , Research , and Practice
Theories defined as organizing structures of our reflections, observations, projections and inferences (assumptions)
Research defined as a systematic inquiry into a subject that uses various approaches (quantitative and qualitative methods) to answer questions and solves problems.
Research can be considered a specific explanation. When considering the relationship between theory and research , one could conclude that theory gives direction to research, which in turn guides practice.
A framework is an abstract, logical structure of meaning. It guides the development of the study and enables the researcher to link the findings to the body of knowledge using in nursing.

Research Question / Hypothesis:
Hypothesis is a statement of the researcher s expectations about relationships between the variables under investigation. For example: is preeclampsia toxemia in pregnant women associated with stress factors present during pregnancy? This might be translated into the following hypothesis or prediction: pregnant women with a higher incidence of emotionally disturbing or stressful events during pregnancy will be more likely than women with a lower incidence of stress to experience preeclampsia toxemia.
They are the who, what, when, where, why and how guiding the nursing care provided to patients, so it is essential to assess the following issues
1. Is the research question clearly stated
2. Does it match the purpose of the study
3. Are the decisions made about the research question adequately justified
4. Is there a theory / framework / model discussed that established a relationship with the question?
Variables of the study
1. Independent variable: is the presumed cause
2. Dependent variable: is the presumed effect
Example: does a nursing intervention cause more rapid recovery?
Does smoking cause lung cancer
Evidence generated by nursing research provides support for the quality and cost-effectiveness of nursing interventions
Nurse Researcher Roles
Two nursing roles are specifically focused on research: a. the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) and b. the clinical nurse researcher (CNR).
Nursing research is essential if nurses are to understand the varied dimensions of their profession.
Research enables nurses to describe the characteristics of a particular nursing situation about which little is known; to explain phenomena that must be considered in planning nursing care; to predict the probable outcomes of certain nursing decisions; to control the occurrence of undesired outcomes; and to initiate activities to promote desired client behavior.














المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .