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Ethical issues in scientific nursing research

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الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التخصصات التمريضية     المرحلة 7
أستاذ المادة امين عجيل ياسر الياسري       12/11/2017 07:20:09
Issues of ethical behavior are central of health professions:
In conducting clinical trials and research projects ethical issues should be taken in to consideration, it is unethical for an investigator not to give patients the best possible treatment. Other way, it is unethical not to discover whether a new treatment is an improvement, since this would deny future patient the possibility of a cure.

ETHICAL Abbreviation
E = Empowering the subject for the consent.
T = Transparent processes to follow.
H = Human thinking in the clinical trial.
I = Internationally accepted data by following ethics.
C = Consult the guidance regularly.
A = Authenticity of trial objectives.
L = Legal representation.

Code of ethics for nursing research
The ICN code of ethics for nurses is a guide for action based on social values and need. It will have meaning only as a document if applied to the realities of nursing and health care in a changing society.

Safe and ethical research
Informed consent.
Confidentiality.
Data protection.
Right withdraw.
Potential benefits.
Potential harms.

? Nuremberg Code
This code is concerned with several criteria for research including the following:
1. Researcher must inform subjects about the study.
2. Researcher must be for the good of society.
3. Researcher must be based on the animal experiments, if possible.
4. Researcher must try avoiding injury to research subjects.
5. Researcher must be qualified to conduct research.
6. Subjects or the researcher can stop the study if problems occur.


Three basic principles related to research subjects were identified:
Respect for person-research subjects should have autonomy and self-determination.
Beneficence-research subjects should be protected from harm.
Justice research subjects should receive fair treatment.
Element of informed consent
The principle means for ensuring that the rights of research subjects are protected is through informed consent.

Informed consent: concern subject participation in research in which they have full understanding of the study before the study begins.
Vulnerable populations
Children.
Prisoners.
Mentally retarded individuals.
Dementia/ coma state.
Mental illness.
pregnant women.
Emergency patients? (pain, fear, etc.)

Informed consent:
1. What it is:
a. A process
b. A knowledge respect for persons(autonomy)
2. What it s not:
a. -A legal document
b. -A risk management tool for an investigator or an institution
c. -A formality

Element of Ethical Research
Protecting human rights
Understanding informed consent
Understanding institutional review of research
Balancing benefits and risks in a study

Principle of Beneficence
Freedom from harm.
Freedom from exploitation.
Risk/ benefit ratios:
High anticipated benefit may balance high risks.


Principle of Justice
Fair treatment.
(even if choose not to participate)
Right to privacy.
Anonymity
Confidentiality

Right to privacy
The freedom that an individual has to determine the time, extent, and general circumstances under which private information will be shared with others.
? Essential Information for consent:
1. Introduction of research activities.
2. Statement of research purpose.
3. Selection of research subjects.
4. Explanation of procedures.

5. Description of risks and discomforts.
6. Description of benefits.
7. Assurance of anonymity and confidentiality.
8. Offer to answer questions.
9. Voluntary participation.
10. Option to withdraw.

Roles for nurses in research ethics
Nurses as research assistants or coordinators.
. Informed consent.
. Determining competency.

Nurses as care provider.
. Obligation to maintain rights and responsibilities to patient s advocacy role.
. Important to facilitate research.
. Research potential source of moral distress.


المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .
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