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infection and it s mode of transmission

الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التخصصات التمريضية     المرحلة 4
أستاذ المادة سلمى كاظم جهاد الابراهيمي       4/27/2011 7:37:12 AM

 

Infection and it’s mode of transmission:
 
SOURCE OF INFECTION
It is defined as the person, animal, object or substance from which an infectious agent

passes or is disseminated to the host
RESERVOIR:
? It is defined as “any person, animal, arthropod, plant, soil, or substance “(or

combination of these in which an infectious agent lives and multiplies, on which it depends

primarily for survival, and where it reproduces itself in such manner that it can be

transmitted to a susceptible host”


CARRIERS:
A Carrier is defined as an infected person or animal that harbours a specific infectious

agent in the absence of discernible clinical disease and serves as a potential source of

infection for others

A) Incubatory
? TYPE                 
B) Convalescent
C) Healthy
? DURATION  
A) Temporary
B) Chronic

PORTAL OF EXIT:

     A) Urinary
     B) Intestinal
    C) Respiratory

? FEATURES OF CARRIER:
1. Presence of specific microbes in the body
2. Absence of apparent symptoms and signs
3. Shedding of micro-organisms in the discharges or excretions
4. As a source of infection to others

INCUPATION PERIOD:

? The time interval between invasion by an infectious agent and appearance of the first sign

or symptom of the disease in question

FACTORS TO DETERMINE THE INCUBATION PERIOD:
? Infective dose
? Portal of entry
? Individual susceptibility

 

COMMUNICABLE PERIOD:
It is defined as the time during which an infectious agent may be transferred directly or

indirectly from an infected person to another person, from an infected animal to man , or

from an infected person to an animal, including arthropods

HERD IMMUNITY:
It is the level of resistance of a community or group of people to a particular disease
 
BEHAVIOUR OF DISEASE IN THE COMMUNITY:
1. Exotic
2. Sporadic
3. Endemic
4. Epidemic
5. Pandemic
6. Outbreak

EPIDEMIC:
? It is the unusual occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness, specific

health-related behavior, or other health related events clearly in excess of normal

expectancy (LAST,1995)

OUT BREAK:
? Two or more related cases in infections, suggesting the possibility of a common source or

transmission between cases
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF DISEASE:

? Place
? Time
? Distribution
? Agent determinants
? Host determinants
? Environmental determinants
? Incupation period
? Mode of transmission
? Portal of entry
? Natural history of disease
? Secondary attack rate

6 Links to the Chain of Infection:
? Portal of Entry
?   Susceptible Host
?   Causative Agent
?   Reservoir
?   Portal of Exit
?   Mode of Transmission

1. Causative Agent:
? Bacteria (includes Richettsia, Chlamydia, and Mycoplasm    
?   Viruses
?   Fungi
?   Protozoa
?   Helminths

2 Reservoir:
? Humans:

?  (  Patients
?  (  Healthcare Workers
? Animals
?   Insects
?   Rodents
?   Shell Fish

? Environment
? (  Patient Care Equipment
? (  Environmental Surfaces
? (  Food
3 Portal of Exit:
The path by which the infectious organism (agent) leaves the reservoir
4 Modes of Transmission:
? Contact  (Direct and Indirect)
?   Airborne
?   Vector-Borne
?   Common Vehicle

CONTACT:
? DIRECT:  immediate transmission
?    Person-to-person
?    Actual physical contact between source and patient
? INDIRECT CONTACT:
?    Patient to contaminated indirect object (contaminated endoscope)
?   Droplets spread (large particles that rapidly settle out on horizontal surfaces –

usually within 3 feet of source)

? AIRBORNE
?    Organisms contained within droplet nuclei or dust particles (i.e. droplet  

nuclei of tuberculosis
?  Suspended in air for extended periods, may be spread through ventilation systems
? VECTOR-BORN:

? External vector-born transmission; mechanical transfer of microbes on  external

appendages (feet of flies)
? Harbored by Vector
? Harbored by vector, but no biological interaction between vector and agent (i.e. yellow

fever virus

PORTAL OF ENTRY:

The path by which an infectious agent enters the susceptible host

Recommendations isolation precautions:

? Birth of Infectious Disease Hospitals
? Patients with infectious disease
?   process placed in separate facilities
? Aseptic techniques used to combat
?  transmission of diseases

? Barrier Nursing:

? (  Hospital personnel wear gowns  between patients
? Handwashing between patients with antiseptic solutions after  patient contact
? ( Disinfection of objects contaminated by patents

7 Categories of Isolation:

? Strict Isolation
?   Respiratory Isolation
?   Protective Isolation
?   Enteric Isolation
? Wound and Skin Precautions
?   Discharge Precautions
?   Blood Precautions
? Disease were lumped into categories based on epidemiological features of the disease

(resulted in under or over isolation)

? Respiratory
? Bone and Joint Infection 
? Central Nervous System 
? Gastrointestinal System
? Skin and Soft Tissue
? Surgical Sites
? Blood Stream
? Urinary System (UTI)
? Cardiovascular
? Eye/Ear/Throat Mouth Infection
? Reproductive System

3 Major Modes of Transmission in the Healthcare Setting:
? Skin Contact
? Puncture Wounds
? Mucous Membranes (eye/mouth/nose)

Bloodborne Pathogens:
? Hepatitis B Virus
?  Hepatitis C Virus
?  Human Immunodeficiency Virus

 

 



المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .