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nutrition services

الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التخصصات التمريضية     المرحلة 4
أستاذ المادة سلمى كاظم جهاد الابراهيمي       4/25/2011 4:58:16 PM

 

 

Nutrition Assessment, Services, and Programs:

 

 

The average age at death has changed dramatically and life expectancy at birth is now 77.4 years.

 

However, the maximum age at which people die has changed very little.

 

Disease can shorten people’s lives and poor nutrition practices make diseases more likely to occur.

 

 

         Healthy People in Healthy Communities

 

        This document includes two broad goals and 467 specific, measurable targets or objectives to be achieved by the year 2010.

 

         Goal 1 is to increase quality and years of healthy life.

 

         Goal 2 is to eliminate health disparities.

 

 

          Community nutritionists have numerous job responsibilities although there are common themes that emerge.

 

        Data gathering about the community itself or about the people who use or implement community-based programs or services.

 

        Issues involving policy, program management, and how to use scarce resources.

 

        Determining whether nutrition programs and services are reaching the right audience with the right messages and having the desired effect.

 

 

Healthy Adults:

 

         An individual’s current health profile is substantially determined by behavioral risk factors

 

         The leading causes of death have all been associated with behavioral risk factors and many adults would benefit from changes in lifestyle behaviors including:

 

1.       Incorporating exercise

 

2.       Maintaining a healthy weight 

 

 

The most important goal of health promotion and disease prevention for adults as they age is maintaining health and functional independence.

 

Improvements in diet and nutrition status and weight control can enhance the health of older adults as well as help control risk factors.

 

Primary Healthy People 2010 objectives for older adults focus on reducing the prevalence and number of people who suffer from some of the following:

 

 

1. Arthritis

 

2. Osteoporosis

 

3. Cancer

 

4. Diabetes

 

5. Kidney disease

 

 

National Goals for Health Promotion:

 

The Healthy People 2010 progress review reveals:

 

Increased weight

 

Little to no improvement concerning those objectives related to fruit, vegetable, and grain consumption

 

Nutrition Education Programs:

 

Nutrition education programs aimed at adults are found in both public and private sectors and they strive to increase nutrition knowledge and skills and improve eating patterns.

 

 

Nutrition Education Programs:

 

 

Public programs include:

 

1. Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program

 

2. Food and Drug Administration and USDA public education campaign on food labels

 

3. Other public efforts include:

 

National Cancer Institute’s 5 a Day for Better Health program to promote fruit and vegetable consumption to prevent cancer

 

·                     In general, worksite health promotion efforts can be classified under four main areas:

 

1. Policies, such as those related to smoking and alcohol.

 

2. Screenings, such as those for cancer, high blood pressure, and cholesterol.

 

3. Information or activities, such as individual counseling, group classes, or workshops.

 

4. Facilities or services related to nutrition, physical fitness, or stress management.

 

 

Primary Nutrition-Related Problems of Aging:

 

 

         1.   Older adults need to choose a nutrient-dense diet, especially since caloric needs decrease with age.

 

The need for some nutrients, such as calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin C, increase with the effects of aging.

 

Only 15% of the population aged 45 to 64 years consumes a good diet, with the dairy and fruit groups needing the most improvement.

 

 

The chances of suffering from chronic disease increase as people age and some of these include high blood pressure and heart disease.

 

 

Dementia is a major contributor to disability and placement in nursing homes and malnutrition can occur secondary to this condition.

 

 

Evaluation of Nutritional Status:

 

 

         Up to one-quarter of all elderly patients and one-half of all hospitalized elderly may be suffering from malnutrition.

 

         Nutrition Screening

 

        The Nutrition Screening Initiative focuses on the elderly and is an effort to promote nutrition screening and early intervention as part of routine health care for the elderly.

 

        Screening:

 

        The checklist addresses:

 

        Disease

 

        Eating status

 

        Tooth loss or mouth pain

 

        Economic hardship

 

        Reduced social contact

 

        Multiple medications

 

        Involuntary weight loss or gain

 

        Need for assistance with self-care

 

        Elder years above age 80

 

 

         Nutrition Assessment

 

         Anthropometric measures include height, weight, and skin fold measures that are affected by aging.

 

         Clinical assessment evaluates condition of the hair, skin, nails, and other physical attributes.

 

         Biochemical assessment may include serum albumin because low serum albumin levels are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the elderly.

 

 

         Medication assessment notes the types and doses of prescription and over-the-counter drugs and evaluates possible nutrient-drug interactions.

 

         Social assessment examines financial resources, living arrangements, and social support.

 

Community-Based Programs and Services:

 

         Current community nutrition programs support the functional independence of older adults in ambulatory care centers, adult day care centers, hospices, and home settings.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .