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care of the school age and adolescent

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الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التخصصات التمريضية     المرحلة 4
أستاذ المادة سلمى كاظم جهاد الابراهيمي       4/25/2011 3:44:32 PM

 

Care of the school age and adolescent population :

 

 

Magnitude and scope

As this group grow & develop dynamically, this increased their vitality & vulnerability.

They require specific approach to facing their needs.

 

 

They are facing problems like vision, hearing, & others which need to be recognized early.

 

 

Services strengthened by providing more resources (Doctors & nurses)

To achieve the coverage of 5000 pupils by one doctor & 2500 pupils by one nurse.

 

 

Characteristics of school age period:

 

 

1. It is a period of physical, mental, social & emotional growth & development.

Period of stress & strain

Period of educational responsibility

Child capacity to learn

2. The child’s response to schooling 

3. The educational environment

4. Specific needs

 

 

Needs of school age group:

 

 

1. Nutritional needs:

Their needs are relatively stable, 2400 calories/day dividing into 15%protien, 35% fat, 50% CHO, vitamins minerals & water. They can eat with family the same food with less tea & coffee.

Snacks are most to be the primary source of nutrients.

 2. Protection from infection

3. Maintenance of health

4. Exercises

5. Rest & sleep

6. Curative services

7. Psychological needs  

8. Health education

 

 

Health problems of school age:

 

 

 

According to their age group, so it is vary (6-12) & (13-19)

Problems of 6-12

1. Nutritional problems

2. Dental dis. 

3. Infections

4. Vision & hearing problems

5. Accidents

6. Upper respiratory infections, Asthma & chronic bronchitis which lead to chronic conditions limiting children’s activity.

 

 

Problems of 13-19

 

 

1. Accidents & sports injuries

2. Dental diseases

3. Mental & emotional problems

4. Smoking &

5. Drug abuse

 

 

Main cause of morbidity & mortality

 

 

1. Deficiency diseases

2. Parasitic diseases 

3. Respiratory diseases

4. Skin dis.

5. Rheumatic fever

6. Infectious dis.

7. Dental dis.

8. Eye dis.

9. Accidents

10. Diarrhoeal dis.

11. Food poisoning

12. Handicaps

13. Emotional problems

14. Blood disorders.

Mortality:

 

 

1. Accidents

2. Infections

3. Rheumatic fever

School Health Program:

 

Objectives:  

1. To change beliefs & practices of children by health education of good habits which in

Change their families

2. To provide a comprehensive (SHP) that deals with the physical, mental, & social needs

3. To reduce morbidity & mortality

These objectives should be achieved by

1. Health education

2. Comprehensive health care

3. Safe & healthy environment

4. Involvement of pupil & teachers in community education

 

 

Components of (SHP):

 

 

  1. School health services:

     

 

They are procedures carried-out by members of school health team to appraise, promote & protect the health of children.

a. Health appraisal is all activities that assess the complete physical, mental, social& emotional health status

1. Review health status at the first entrance to the school.

2. Medical exam. At first year primary (6 yrs) intermediate (12 yrs) & secondary (15 yrs) which includes:   

a. General examination:

 Recording height & weight, children below the third % & above 97% to be referred for management

b. Physical examination: system examination & referrals.

3. Oral & dental exam. In the first year of all levels screening for gum & teeth

4. Vision test: first primary, 4th primary, 1st for secondary & intermediate

5. Hearing test: same like vision done by using Rinne’s test & referred to ENT.

6. School immunization as EPI 

 

 

b. Management of minor illness: & first aid care

 

 

c. Refer & follow-up of pupils with heart dis. Epilepsy, chronic asthma & others.

Subsequent parent meeting

d. Maintain school health records: to provide continuing information.

Types of SH records

1. Personal details: such as the demographic data, address.

2. Immunization records, preschool imm. Records & that are given in the school.

3. Preschool records of the students. Transfer the information from preschool card to School health record

e. Communicable dis. Surveillance: a national system has been launched in the country since 1, 1991

Role of the SH team:

 

 

Screening/medical exam: to detect any dis. early.

Refer any suspect cases

Follow up the diagnosis

Detect out breaks of dis like measles, mumps, and advice on restriction of attendance in case of any out break.

The periodically supervise water & food supplies

To supervise & ensure completion of sch. Immunization schedule.

 

 

School health education:  

 

Providing health information & adequate knowledge for a health behavior & attitude is very important for the children who are the parents of tomorrow knowledge that shaps their own lives.

Objectives:

a. To assess & identify the problems & needs  

b. To educate the pupils

c. To educate on prevention

d. To educate about well-being

e. To use pupils as messengers of health messages.

 

 

Topics are according to their level, personal health, community health, health information.

Methods to be used may be more than one to overcome the individual differences, as lectures, projects, games & others.

 

Implementation & supervision

Activities implemented by school health doctors, nurses, teachers.

School doctors will supervise the activities & write monthly reports to Department of school health & health education will supervise the health education activities

Role of sch. Health doctor/nurse

 

a. Prepare Plan of Action

b. Implement of the Program

c. Supervise the Activities 

d. Conduct training program

e. Implement any survey

f. Report back 

Safe & healthy environment:

 

 

School health environment:

School children live long time within the school environment

Any deterioration may lead to the occurrence of high morbidity & disease outbreaks.

So it is easy to monitor the environment.

Develop knowledge of positive attitude towards a healthy knowledge.  

School environment measures

 

To

1. Ensure that the is built away from the sources of pollution (noise, chemicals)

2. School facilities should be properly lit & ventilated against weather changes.

3. School has adequate portable water supply refuse & sewage disposal.

4. Food supply, storage is of acceptable hygienic standards

5. School should be free from insects & rodents.

6. Adequate number of privies & urinals

7. All the above activities should be properly maintained

8. Health education regarding environment should included in the curriculum.

School health information system:

 

 

Objectives

1. To assess the health of children on entry, detect problems that require correction

2. To monitor the staff workload

3. Assess the progress in examining all children 4. To monitor health education provided to Pupils & teachers, assess the effectiveness of H.ed.

5. To assess the school in terms of environment suitability & adequacy.

6. To detect any problems.

Methods

 

1. School health appraisal report.

 

Form is designed to describe the health status of the children at the entry to each level, using one form.

2. School health follow-up monthly report designed to show the monthly activities of the team, & show the coverage. Each worksheet

is monthly reviewed.

3. School health environment report

To ensure that the sch. Env. Is satisfactory for children, completed after 1st examination is made.

Twice a year, one close to the start of the academic year, & second at the start of the second semester.

4. sch. H. ed monthly report.

 

 

Tasks of sch. H. nurse or visitor:

 

 

A Notification to the principal by the nurse to conduct all programs of imm. & other physical checking 4 days before.

b. Examination during 1st & last weeks should be arranged in Rota.

c. General information of the record filled before the examination to be used.

d. The nurse arrange to visit & test the vision of the pupil & refer any doubtful case, parents should be notified if eye glasses prescribed.

e. The nurse should arrive before the medical exam started prepared a list of children, check medical records

 f. The nurse & visitor should welcome the parents, weigh & measure the height.

g. carry-out cleanliness inspections, children should be observed.

h. Nurse should carry-out infection inspection

i. Ability to do first aid

l. Health education

 

 

Tasks of sch. H. doctors:

 

 

1. carry-out the routine medical examination

2. The parent should be informed 2 weeks before 

3. A letter addressed to the parents before the imm. With two different forms.

4. Provide consultation services to pupils, teachers & parents by appointment.

5. Keep separated the records of pupils with defects.

6. Doctors diagnose, treat, & advise the pt. & refer to different agencies

7. Sent a notification to the principal 4 weeks before.

8. Carry-out the tasks correctly & systematically.

9. Select health education topics

10. Environment health form should be filled

11. Encourage parents to use the services & solve any problems by discussion

12. Attending the parents- teacher meetings.

 

 

 

 

Tasks of the principal:

 

 

1. Invitation to parents to attend the 1st medical exam.

2. Absentees from previous exam

3. The class teacher should attend the medical exam.

4. Teacher may help the nurse

5. The principal should see hand washing facilities

6. Parents must be informed by the principal of any defect

7. Clarify the imm. Importance

8. Teachers should be able to pick up children with symptoms or lack of attention

9. Participate in H. ed. Program

10. If the pupil is transferred from one school to another both of them should care about health card

11. Provide first aid & simple

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .
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