انت هنا الان : شبكة جامعة بابل > موقع الكلية > نظام التعليم الالكتروني > مشاهدة المحاضرة

control of communicable diseases and prevention of epidemics

Share |
الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التخصصات التمريضية     المرحلة 4
أستاذ المادة امين عجيل ياسر الياسري       09/12/2013 18:12:34
Control of communicable diseases and
prevention of epidemics
The importance of communicable diseases in emergencies and disasters

The five most common causes of death in emergencies and disasters are diarrhea, acute respiratory infection, measles, malnutrition and, in endemic zones, malaria. All except malnutrition are communicable diseases directly related to environmental health conditions, and even malnutrition is greatly exacerbated by communicable disease. Disaster-affected people are particularly vulnerable to communicable diseases when the disaster and its immediate consequences reduce resistance to disease because of malnutrition, stress, fatigue, etc. and when post-disaster living conditions are unsanitary.
The control of communicable diseases depends on a healthy environment (clean
water, adequate sanitation, vector control, shelter), immunization, and health workers
trained in early diagnosis and treatment. Thanks to effective environmental health
measures, epidemics following disasters are no longer common. Exceptions are the epidemics occurring in chronic emergencies triggered by drought and civil strife, such as those that occurred in Africa in the 1980s and 1990s, and the epidemics of communicable diseases that have swept refugee camps in Africa and other parts of the world. Functioning disease surveillance systems and intact environmental health services are crucial in protecting public health and in responding to these outbreaks when they occur in times of disaster.
The conditions leading to an epidemic are caused mostly by secondary effects and
not by the primary hazard, except in the case of flooding, which can cause an increase
in waterborne and vector-borne diseases. Other hazards may leave standing water or pollute, or interrupt drinking-water supplies. High winds, coastal storms, mud slides and even earthquakes can all result in standing water, especially where a “cascade” of physical effects occurs. For instance, in the Andes it is not uncommon for a volcanic eruption to melt ice and snow, creating floods, mud flows and rock falls. Earthquakes can trigger landslides that block rivers, causing flooding. In all these cases, excess standing water can promote the breeding of insect disease vectors, or contaminate water supplies with waste or sewage.
Both natural disasters and armed conflict may result in the breakage of water mains
or the interruption of electricity supplies required to pump water. Sewer pipes and
sewage treatment works may also be broken or rendered inoperable.
Besides waterborne and vector-borne disease, there may also be major epidemics of
highly contagious diseases—those spread by personal contact. These are most commonly the result of crowding survivors living in crowded temporary accommodation without adequate ventilation or adequate facilities for personal hygiene and laundry.
The length of time that people spend in temporary settlements is an important determinant of the risk of disease transmission. The prolonged mass settlement of refugees in temporary shelters with only minimal provision for essential personal hygiene is typical of a situation that may cause epidemic outbreaks of infectious diseases Camps established to provide food relief during famine are a special case, as large numbers of people who are already weak and possibly ill are likely to remain in such camps for a long time.


المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .
download lecture file topic