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History of Psychiatry and Psychiatric Nursing

الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التخصصات التمريضية     المرحلة 4
أستاذ المادة سجاء هاشم محمد كاظم       18/11/2012 10:31:05
History of Psychiatry and Psychiatric Nursing
Psychiatry:
It is a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention mental illness.
Psychiatric nursing deals with the promotion of mental health, prevention of mental illness, care and rehabilitation of mentally ill individuals both in hospital and community.
Psychiatric Nursing:
It is a specialized area of nursing practice employing theories of human behavior, as a science and the purposeful use of self as an art in the diagnosis and response to actual or potential mental health problems.
(American Nurses Association 1994)
History of Psychiatry:
• Primitive beliefs regarding mental illness:
1. Individual had been dispossessed of his/her soul
2. Broken a taboo or sinned against another individual or god Evil spirits or super natural/magical powers entered the body

Important Milestones:
1773: The first mental hospital in the US was built in Williamsburg, Virginia
1793: Philip Pinel removed the chains from mentally ill patients confined in Bicetre, a hospital outside Paris i.e. the first revolution in psychiatry
1812: The first American text book in psychiatry was written by Benjamin Rush, who is referred to as the father of American Psychiatry
1812: Clifford Beers, an ex- patient of mental hospital wrote the book, “The Mind That found itself” based on his bitter experiences in the hospital
Late 18th century .Led to the advent of moral treatment which was characterized by:
• Kindness
• Compassion
• Humane treatment of mentally ill patients
1912: Eugene Bleuler, a Swiss psychiatrist coined the term Schizophrenia
1927: Insulin shock treatment was introduced for schizophrenia
1936: frontal lobotomy was advocated for the management of psychiatric disorder
1938: Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT) was used for the treatment of psychoses
1939: development of psychoanalytical theory by Sigmund Freud led to new concepts in the treatment of mental illness.
1949: Lithium was first used for the treatment of mania
1952: Chlorpromazine was introduced which brought about a revolution in psycho-pharmacology
1963: The community Mental Health centers Act was passed
20th century
There were two opposing views regarding mental illness:
? Biological view stated that mental illness was due to biological causes and could be treated with physical treatments.
? Psychological view stated that mental illness was due to factors such as social stresses.

History of Psychiatric Nursing:
Prior to 1860, psychiatric treatment was by custodial care whereby untrained persons controlled mentally ill patients.There was no concept of psychiatric care.
Florence Nightingale: Her philosophy of treating a patient as a member of the family and part of the society laid the foundation of psychiatric nursing.
She emphasized on:
? Holistic care
? Therapeutic communication
? Sensitivity to human emotions
? Development of independence in patients

? Dr. Edward Cowles, who encouraged Linda Richards, US’ first trained nurse, to start training for mental health nursing.
? The first mental health training school for nurses was set up in 1882 at the McLean Hospital.
? Effie Taylor combined general and mental health nursing.
? Mary Adelaide Nutting emphasized the role of the psychiatric nurse and conceptualized nursing care in terms of:
• Diagnosis
• Care
• Treatment

? Hildegarde E. Peplau:
a. She is known as the Mother of Psychiatric Nursing.
b. She developed the first graduate psychiatric nursing programmer in 1954 at Rutgers University.
c. Her emphasis was on the nurse–patient relationship.

d. First to identify psychiatric nursing as an essential element of general nursing and as a specialty area.
e. First to describe the nurse–patient relationship as the foundation of nursing practice.
f. Her model represented a shift from traditional treatments to interpersonal relational model of practice
Dr.Hildegard Peplau defined the therapeutic roles that nurses might play in the mental health setting.
She described the skills and roles of the psychiatric Nurse in her book “interpersonal relations in Nursing”. It was the first systematic and theoretical frame work developed for Psychiatric nursing.
? Maxwell Jones introduced therapeutic community.
The focus began to shift to primary prevention and implementing care and consultation in the community
The name psychiatric nursing changed in to mental health nursing. 1970’s when it was known as psychosocial nursing.




Dr. Saja Hashem
Professor .Psychiatric Nursing


المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .