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epidemiology: control of communicable disease

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الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التخصصات التمريضية     المرحلة 4
أستاذ المادة سلمى كاظم جهاد الابراهيمي       5/25/2011 3:31:27 AM

Control of the communicable diseases:

Global successes and failure in the control of communicable diseases are affected by many factors.

1. Geopolitical nature of an area influences who can response when a communicable disease occurs in the country

2. The nature and manmade recourses of an area influence the health status the health status of the population before a disease strikes, contributing to both disease resistance and ability to survive once a  communicable disease is contracted.

New, Emerging , and Reemerging diseases:

In the early 1981 s, HIV/ AIDS had emerged as a new disease , it was also tuberculosis, which was high

Clearly communicable diseases will always present challenges to health care. Diseases that have been almost eliminated can emerge again if public health efforts are failed to overcome the problem.

Emerging  diseases: Emerging  diseases: include typhoid, malaria, plague, Lasa fever, cholera, and yellow fever accompany people as they travel from one country another on airlines, (SARS) Sudden acute respiratory syndrome emerged in 2003. causing a world wide panic and a crisis for health care system. Other like staphylococcus aureus infections now are characterized by some strains to powerful that they no longer response to vaccines.

Controlling communicable diseases depend on the way of transmission and separation. Primary prevention focus on the (education) and health education as use the mass media like TV, Media channels, develop educational materials.

Immunizations:
That’s include all the schedule of the vaccinations.

Barriers to immunizations coverage:

1. Religious Barriers: children from specific groups identified only on admission to school missing their immunizations, some people demonstrates such beliefs against immunizations.

2. Financial Barriers: The factors that affect people from reaching the health care system.

3. Social Barriers: such as educational level, transportation problems as well as access to and overcrowding of facilities. Working parents may find it difficult.

4. Cultural Barriers: meeting the immunizations needs of minority groups may involve language, overwhelmed, and unable to access services.

5. Provider Limitations: fail to offer immunizations to the child when providers see the child for any reason with out reviewing the child profile of immunizations records. The missing vaccination of some children.

Secondary prevention includes: screening that is used in community health and disease prevention to describe programs that deliver a testing procedure to detect disease in groups of asymptomatic, apparently healthy individuals.
Screening is not diagnosis, but rather seeks to identify those persons with positive or suspicious test findings who then require medical evaluation or treatment.

As tertiary prevention it includes isolation and quarantine:

Isolation: refers to separation of the infected persons or animals from others for the period of communicability to limit the transmission of the infectious agent to susceptible persons.

Quarantine: refers to the restrictions placed on healthy contacts of an infectious case for the duration of the incubation period to prevent disease transmission if infection should develop.

Universal precautions:

1. hand washing
2. Discarding or bagging and labeling of articles contaminated with infectious materials
3. Isolation based on the mode of transmission which includes sometimes strict isolation, as well as protect the environment. 
  
   

 
    



المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .
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