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Common Signs and Symptoms of Mental Illness

الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التمريض العام     المرحلة 4
أستاذ المادة علي احمد كاظم الحطاب       24/06/2019 08:18:29
? Common Signs and Symptoms in Psychiatric Illnesses
1. Sensory–Perceptual Alterations
A. Illusions: Misperceptions or misinterpretations of real external sensory stimuli: e.g. Shadows may be misperceived as frightening figures.
B. Hallucinations: false sensory perceptions not associated with real external stimuli, may involve any of the five senses. Types of hallucinations include the following:
? Auditory: auditory hallucinations are false perceptions of sound. Most commonly, they are of voices, but the individual may report noises, music, and other noises. Command hallucinations may place the individual or others in a potentially dangerous situation. “Voices” that issue Commands for violence to self. Auditory hallucinations are the most common type in psychiatric disorders.
? Visual: These are false visual perceptions. They may consist of formed images, such as of people, or of unformed images, such as flashes of light.
? Tactile: false perceptions of the sense of touch, under the skin, the sensation that something is crawling on or under the skin.
? Gustatory: false perception of taste. Most commonly, gustatory hallucinations are described as unpleasant tastes.
? Olfactory: false perceptions of the sense of smell.
C. Unreality states:
I. Depersonalization: A phenomenon whereby a person experience a sense of unreality or self –estrangement.
II. Derealization: the false perception by a person that his or her environment has changed also they can be categorized under affect and perception.
2. Abnormalities in Thinking/Thought
? Stream Thought Disorder

A. Flight of ideas: the thoughts follow each other rapidly and there is no general direction of thinking, seen in mania /excited schizophrenics.
B. Pressure of thoughts: Rapid abundant varying thoughts associated with pressure of speech and flight of ideas.
C. Poverty of thoughts: Few, slow, unvaried thoughts associated with poverty of speech.
D. Thought block: Sudden cessation of thought flow with complete emptying of the mind not caused by an external influence.
E. Associative Looseness: thinking is characterized by speech in which ideas shift from one unrelated subject to another. When the condition is severe, speech may be incoherent (e.g., “We wanted to take the bus, but the airport took all the traffic”).
F. Neologism: The psychotic person invents new words, or neologisms, that are meaningless to others but have symbolic meaning to the psychotic person (e.g., “She wanted to give me a ride in her new uniphorum.”).
G. Delusions: Unshakable false beliefs out of keeping with the person’s cultural background not arrived at through logic thinking and not amenable to reasoning.
? Content Thought Disorder
? Delusional Contents:
? Delusions are subdivided according to their content:
? Persecutory/paranoid delusions: involve the client’s belief that “others” are planning to harm the client or are spying, following, ridiculing, or belittling the client in some way. Sometimes, the client cannot define who these “others” are.
Examples: The client may think that food has been poisoned or that rooms are bugged with listening devices. Sometimes the “persecutor” is the government, FBI, or other powerful organization. Occasionally, specific individuals, even family members, may be named as the “persecutor.”
? Delusion of Grandeur: the individual has an exaggerated feeling of importance, power, knowledge, or identity (e.g., “I am Jesus Christ”).
? Delusion of Reference or ideas of reference: involve the client’s belief that television broadcasts, music, or newspaper articles have special meaning for him or her.
Examples: The client may report that the president was speaking directly to him on a news broadcast or that special messages are sent through newspaper articles.
? Religious delusions: often center around the second coming of Christ or another significant religious figure or prophet. These religious delusions appear suddenly as part of the client’s psychosis and are not part of his or her religious faith or that of others. Examples: The client claims to be the Messiah, or some prophet sent from God and believes that God communicates directly to him or her or that he or she has a “special” religious mission in life or special religious powers.
? Sexual delusions: involve the client’s belief that his or her sexual behavior is known to others; that the client is a rapist, prostitute, or pedophile or is pregnant; or that his or her excessive masturbation has led to insanity.
? Delusion of Control or Influence: the individual believes that person’s thoughts, actions, or feelings are controlled by outside forces. (e.g., “The dentist put a filling in my tooth; I now receive transmissions through the filling that control what I think and do”).
? Somatic Delusion: the individual has a false idea about the functioning of his or her body (e.g., “I’m 70 years old and I will be the oldest person ever to give birth. The doctor says I’m not pregnant, but I know I am.”).
? Nihilistic Delusion: the individual has a false idea that the self, a part of the self, others, or the world is nonexistent (e.g., “The world no longer exists.” “I have no heart.”).
H. Circumstantiality: the individual delays in reaching the point of a communication because of unnecessary; the goal is usually met but only with numerous interruptions.
I. Tangentiality: the person never really gets to the point of the communication. Unrelated topics are introduced, and the focus of the original discussion is lost.
J. Obsessions:
1. Repetitive ideas, images, feelings or urges insistently entering person’s mind despite resistance.
2. They are unwanted, distressful and recognized as senseless and irrational.
3. Obsessions are frequently followed by compelling actions (compulsions).
? Common Obsessional Contents:
A. Dirt/ contamination/cleaning
B. Orderliness/ symmetry
C. Doubts/ checking/ counting
D. Ruminations: obsessional thoughts.
J. Thought Insertion: Delusion that some of person’s thoughts being put into the mind by an external force (other people, certain agency).
K. Thought Withdrawal: Delusion that some of person’s thoughts being taken out of the mind.
L. Thought Broadcasting: Delusion that others can read or hear the person’s thoughts, as they are broadcast over the air, radio or some other unusual way.



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