انت هنا الان : شبكة جامعة بابل > موقع الكلية > نظام التعليم الالكتروني > مشاهدة المحاضرة

Introduction to Psychology

الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التمريض العام     المرحلة 4
أستاذ المادة سلمى كاظم جهاد الابراهيمي       02/03/2019 17:29:51
Unit 1: Introduction to Psychology:

A BRIEF HISTORY
The word ‘psychology’ is derived from the Greek psyche (mind, soul or spirit) and logos (knowledge, discourse or study). Literally, then, psychology is the ‘study of the mind’. The emergence of psychology as a separate discipline is generally dated at 1879, when Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychological laboratory at the University of Leipzig in Germany. Wundt and his co-workers were attempting to investigate ‘the mind’ through introspection (observing and analyzing the structure of their own conscious mental processes).

Introspection’s aim was to analyse conscious thought into its basic elements and perception into its constituent
sensations, much as chemists analyse compounds into elements.

This attempt to identify the structure of conscious thought is called structuralism.


Psychology: the scientific study of behaviour. Its subject matter includes behavioural processes that are observable, such as gestures, speech and physiological changes, and processes that can only be inferred, such as
thoughts and dreams.

Or the scientific study of people, the mind and behaviour. It is both a thriving academic discipline and a vital professional practice.

psychology is commonly defined as the scientific study of behaviour and cognitive processes (or mind or experience).

Psychology covers more territory than most people realize. As we have seen, not all psychologists are therapists. Many work in education, industry, sports, prisons,

School psychologists are experts in teaching and learning. They deal with issues impacting learning, family or personal crises influencing school performance, or social conditions such as gangs, teen pregnancy, or substance abuse.

They sometimes diagnose learning or behavioral problems and work with teachers, students, and parents to help students succeed in school. Many school psychologists work for school districts, where their work includes administering, scoring, and interpreting psychological tests.

Clinical and counseling psychologists help people improve social and emotional adjustment or work through difficult choices in relationships, careers, or education.

Almost half of all doctoral-level psychologists list clinical or counseling psychology as their specialty

Environmental psychologists aim to improve human interaction with the environment. They may, for example, study the impact of inner-city garden spaces on children’s academic performance or determine how best to encourage environmentally friendly behavior such as recycling. In private practice, environmental psychologists
sometimes help clients maintain their commitment to sustainability or conduct workshops teaching people the mental health benefits of interacting with nature.

Psychology can be roughly divided into two major areas:
1. Research, which seeks to increase knowledge base
2. Practice, through which knowledge is applied to solving problems in the real world

Psychiatry is a medical specialty, not part of psychology at all. Psychiatrists hold MD (Doctor of Medicine) degrees and, in addition, have specialized training in the treatment of mental and behavioral problems, typically with drugs.

Therefore, psychiatrists are licensed to prescribe medicines and perform other medical procedures. Consequently, psychiatrists tend to treat patients with more severe mental disorders (such as schizophrenia) and also to view patients from a medical perspective, as persons with mental “diseases.”

By contrast, psychology is a much broader field that encompasses the whole range of human behavior and mental processes, from brain function to social interaction and from mental well-being to mental disorder. For most psychologists, graduate training emphasizes research methods, along with advanced study in a specialty.

Moreover, while psychologists usually hold doctoral degrees, their training is not usually medical training, and thus they are not generally licensed to prescribe medications.

Psychologists, then, work in a wide variety of fields, all of which view people from a psychological perspective. This perspective is illustrated by clinical and counseling psychologists, who are likely to view the people they are helping as clients rather than patients.


Four Goals of Psychology
When look at the word psychology immediately understand that it is the science of behavior and the mind. Therefore it is important to simplify the function of the science. For this post we will focus on thinking, understanding, interpretation and feedback.
Goal #1 Thinking
When you here psychology, the average person will automatically pair it with thinking. The way we think, how we think or what we think about. The focus of thinking allows psychologist to categorize disorders by how we think. For example OCD, is a disorder that the person is obsessed compulsions repeating things over and over uncontrollably. They are constantly thinking about something over and over. The compulsion is repeated over and over again. Therefore, your think control your actions and behaviors.
Goal #2 Understanding
In psychology another goal is to understand how the mind works. How the thinking acts out in our behaviors. This understanding will help you arrive at the conclusion that understanding our thinking is a goal of psychology.
Goal #3 Interpretation
The third area of psychology is interpretation of thinking, understanding and behaviors. Once you can analyze the information that is being process through the many neuron located in the brain. Through the means of interpretation you can further analyze the information in qualitative and quantitative data. Simply meaning words and numbers that tell a story. Data tells the story.
Goal #4 Feedback
Finally, feedback of the results allows someone to explain the observations and reflections of thinking, understanding, and interpretation. Feedback is a necessity if you want others to be able to apply the knowledge and in what manner they can use it.
Summary of Psychology’s Six Main Perspectives
1. The Biological Perspective focuses on:
• Nervous system
• Endocrine system
• Genetics
• Physical characteristics
2. The Behavioral Perspective focuses on:
• Learning
• Control of behavior by the environment
• Stimuli and responses—but not mental processes

3. The Developmental Perspective focuses on:
• Changes in psychological functioning across the life span
• Heredity and environment
These psychologists generally specialize in an area such as infant, child, adolescent, or geriatric development, while others may study the effects of developmental delays. This field covers a huge range of topics including everything from prenatal development to Alzheimer s disease.

4. The Cognitive Perspective focuses on:
• mental processes, such as thought, learning, memory, and perception
• the mind as a computer-like ”machine”
• how emotion and motivation influence thought and perception (”hot cognition”)
5. The Whole-Person Perspective includes:
• the Psychodynamic View, which emphasizes unconscious motivation and mental disorder
• the Humanistic View, which emphasizes mental health and human potential
• the Trait and Temperament View, which emphasizes personality characteristics and individual differences

6. The Sociocultural Perspective focuses on:
• social influences on behavior and mental processes
• how individuals function in groups
• cultural differences

Branches of psychology
Abnormal Psychology

is the area that looks at psychopathology and abnormal behavior. Mental health professionals help assess, diagnose, and treat a wide variety of psychological disorders including anxiety and depression. Counselors, clinical psychologists, and psychotherapists often work directly in this field.


Behavioral Psychology
Behavioral psychology, also known as behaviorism, is a theory of learning based on the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. While this branch of psychology dominated the field during the first part of the twentieth century, it became less prominent during the 1950s. However, behavioral techniques remain a mainstay in therapy, education, and many other areas.
People often utilize behavioral strategies such as classical conditioning and operant conditioning to teach or modify behaviors. For example, a teacher might use a system of rewards in order to teach students to behave during class. When students are good, they receive gold stars which can then be turned in for some sort of special privilege.


Biopsychology
Biopsychology is a branch of psychology is focused on how the brain, neurons, and nervous system influence thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. This field draws on many different disciplines including basic psychology, experimental psychology, biology, physiology, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience.
People who work in this field often study how brain injuries and brain diseases impact human behavior. Biopsychology is also sometimes referred to as physiological psychology, behavioral neuroscience, or psychobiology.
Clinical Psychology
Clinical psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the assessment and treatment of mental illness, abnormal behavior, and psychiatric disorders. Clinicians often work in private practices, but many also work in community centers or at universities and colleges. Others work in hospital settings or mental health clinics as part of a collaborative team that may include physicians, psychiatrists, and other mental health professionals.
Counseling Psychology
Counseling psychology is one of the largest individual subfields within psychology. It is centered on treating clients experiencing mental distress and a wide variety of psychological symptoms. The Society of Counseling Psychology describes the field as an area that can improve interpersonal functioning throughout life by improving social and emotional health as well as addressing concerns about health, work, family, marriage, and more.
Experimental Psychology
Experimental psychology is the branch of psychology that utilizes scientific methods to research the brain and behavior. Many of these techniques are also used by other areas in psychology to conduct research on everything from childhood development to social issues. Experimental psychologists work in a wide variety of settings including colleges, universities, research centers, government and private businesses.
Experimental psychologists utilize the scientific method to study a whole range of human behaviors and psychological phenomena. This branch of psychology is often viewed as a distinct subfield within psychology, but experimental techniques and methods are actually used extensively throughout every subfield of psychology. Some of the methods used in experimental psychology include experiments, correlational studies, case studies, and naturalistic observation.
Forensic Psychology
is a specialty area that deals with issues related to psychology and the law. Those who work in this field of psychology apply psychological principles to legal issues. This may involve studying criminal behavior and treatments or working directly in the court system.
Health Psychology
Is a specialty area that focuses on how biology, psychology, behavior and social factors influence health and illness. Other terms including medical psychology and behavioral medicine are sometimes used interchangeably with the term health psychology. The field of health psychology is focused on promoting health as well as the prevention and treatment of disease and illness.
Health psychologists are interested in improving health across a wide variety of domains. These professionals not only promote healthy behaviors, but they also work on the prevention and treatment of illness and disease. Health psychologists often deal with health-related issues such as weight management, smoking cessation, stress management, and nutrition.
They might also research how people cope with illnesses and help patients look for new, more effective coping strategies. Some professionals in this field help design prevention and public awareness programs, while others work within the government to improve health care policies.
Personality Psychology
Personality psychology is the branch of psychology that focuses on the study of the thought patterns, feelings, and behaviors that make each individual unique. Classic theories of personality include Freud s psychoanalytic theory of personality and Erikson s theory of psychosocial development (the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan). Personality psychologists might study how different factors such as genetics, parenting, and social experiences influence how personality develops and changes.
Methodology in psychology
A wide range of research methods are used in psychology. These methods vary by the sources from which information is obtained, how that information is sampled, and the types of instruments that are used in data collection. Methods also vary by whether they collect qualitative data, quantitative data or both.
Qualitative psychological research is where the research findings are not arrived at by statistical or other quantitative procedures. Quantitative psychological research is where the research findings result from mathematical modeling and statistical estimation or statistical inference. Since qualitative information can be handled as such statistically, the distinction relates to method, rather than the topic studied.
There are three main types of psychological research:
• Correlational research
• Descriptive research
• Experimental research









المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .