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motivation

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الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التمريض العام     المرحلة 4
أستاذ المادة سلمى كاظم جهاد الابراهيمي       02/03/2019 17:21:00
What is motivation?
According to rubin and mcneil (1983), motives are. A special kind of cause that ‘energize, direct and sustain
a person’s behaviour (including hunger, thirst, sex and Curiosity)’.
The study of motivation is the study of all those pushes and prods – biological, social and psychological – that defeat our laziness and move us, either eagerly or reluctantly to action. Features or dimensions of motivation , including:
1. Internal or external
2. Innate or learned
3. Mechanistic or cognitive
4. Conscious or unconscious.
According to Maslow, We’re subject to two quite different sets of motivational states or forces:

1. Those that ensure survival by satisfying basic physical and psychological needs (physiological, safety, love And belongingness, and esteem)

2. Those that promote the person’s self-actualization – that is, realizing one’s full potential, ‘becoming everything that one is capable of becoming’, especially in the intellectual and creative Domains.


Homoeostatic drive theory
The term homoeostasis is derived from the Greek Homos (meaning ‘same’) and stasis (meaning ‘stoppage’).
It was coined by cannon (1929) to refer to the process. By which an organism maintains a fairly constant
internal (bodily) environment – that is, how body:

Temperature, blood sugar level, salt concentration in the Blood, and so on, are kept in a state of relative balance Or equilibrium.
When a state of imbalance arises (for example, through a substantial rise in body temperature), something must happen to correct the imbalance and restore equilibrium (sweating). In this case, the animal doesn’t have to ‘do’ anything, because sweating is completely automatic and purely physiological. However, if the imbalance is caused by the body’s need for food or drink (tissue Need), the hungry or thirsty animal has to do something to obtain food or water.

Theories of motivation compared: Theories emphasis examples

Instinct theory: biological processes that motivate behavior patterns specific to a species example: bird migration, fish schooling
Drive theory: needs produce drives that motivate behavior until drives are reduced: example: Hunger, thirst
Freud’s theory: motivation arises from unconscious desires; developmental changes in these urges appear as we mature example: sex, aggression
Maslow’s theory: motives result from needs, which occur in a priority order (a needs hierarchy) example: esteem needs, self-actualization
Evolutionary theory: priority of motives determined by functional, proximal, and developmental factors
Example: food odor (proximal stimulus) may raise the priority of hunger drive

Maslow’s most memorable innovation, then, was his hierarchy of needs, which posited Six classes of needs listed in priority order. The “higher” needs exert their influence on behavior only when the more basic needs are satisfied:
• Biological needs, such as hunger and thirst, lie at the base of the hierarchy and must be satisfied before higher needs take over.
• Safety needs motivate us to avoid danger, but only when biological needs are reasonably well satisfied. Thus, a hungry animal may risk its physical safety for food until it gets its belly full, at which point the safety needs take over.
• Love, attachment, and affiliation needs energize us when we are no longer concerned about the more basic drives such as hunger, thirst, and safety. These “higher” needs make us want to affiliate with others, to love, and to be loved.
• Esteem needs, following next in the hierarchy, include the needs to like oneself, to see oneself as competent and effective, and to do what is necessary to earn the respect of oneself and others.
• Self-actualization, the “highest” need, but with the lowest priority, motivates us to seek the fullest development of our creative human potential. Self-actualizing persons are self-aware, self-accepting, socially responsive, spontaneous, and open to novelty and challenge.

Eating Disorders Only rarely does the condition called anorexia (persistent lack of appetite) result from a physical disorder, such as shock, nausea, or an allergic reaction. More commonly, the cause has psychological roots—in which case the syndrome is called anorexia nervosa. “Nervous anorexia” typically manifests itself in extreme dieting. It can be so extreme, in fact, that the disorder posts the highest mortality rate of any recognized psychological condition. What qualifies as anorexia? When a person weighs less than 85 percent of her desirable weight and still worries about being fat, anorexia is the likely diagnosis.

People with anorexia may also face a problem called bulimia or bulimia nervosa, characterized by periods of binge eating followed by severe removal measures, which may include vomiting, fasting, or using laxatives. In many cases, depression and obsessive compulsive disorder further complicate the clinical picture.

Commonly, a person with anorexia acts as though she is unaware of her condition and continues dieting, ignoring other danger signs that may include termination of menstruation, osteoporosis, bone fractures, and shrinkage of brain tissue. Over time, bulimic vomiting, done to purge the food she has eaten, results in damage to her esophagus, throat, and teeth caused by stomach acid.

What causes anorexia? A strong hint comes from the finding that most persons with the disorder are young females. Significantly, such eating disorders are most prevalent in Western cultures, particularly among middle- and upper-middle-class young women Clearly, it is not a hunger disorder caused by lack of resources. All in all, it is beginning to appear that anorexia—like hunger itself—is a condition caused by multiple factors that stem from biology, cognition, and social pressures.

Most experts believe that obesity results from multiple factors. Prominent among them are poor diet, including supersize portions and an increasing prevalence of food high in fat and sugar. In one laboratory experiment, rats given a diet of sausage, Ho Hos, pound cake, bacon, and cheesecake lost the ability to control their eating and quickly became obese.


المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .
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